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l-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) exists as both membrane-associated and soluble forms in the mammalian brain. Here, we propose that there is a functional and structural coupling between the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by membrane-associated GAD and its packaging into synaptic vesicles (SVs) by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This(More)
1. Possible mechanisms responsible for the increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and sodium ([Na+]i) levels seen during metabolic inhibition were investigated by continuous [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i measurement in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. An initial small mitochondrial Ca2+ release was seen, followed by a large influx of extracellular Ca2+. A(More)
BACKGROUND Taurine is a free amino acid present in high concentrations in a variety of organs of mammalians. As an antioxidant, taurine has been found to protect cells against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS In this report, we present evidence to support the conclusion that taurine exerts a protective function(More)
Previously, we reported that protein phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating soluble l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) [Bao, J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 6464-6467] and membrane-associated GAD activity [Hsu, C. C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 24366-24371]. Here, we report the effect of phosphorylation on the two well-defined GAD isoforms,(More)
This review focuses on the recent advances that were made in understanding the fundamental mechanisms of the regulation of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; E.C. 4.1.1.15), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). In the brain, there are two isoforms of GAD- GAD67 and GAD65, where(More)
In the present era, investigators seek to find therapeutic interventions that are multifaceted in their mode of action. Such targets provide the most advantageous routes for addressing the multiplicity of pathophysiological avenues that lead to neuronal dysfunction and death observed in neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Taurine, an(More)
Ischemic stroke exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. To address the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms observed in ischemic stroke investigators seek to find therapeutic strategies that are multifaceted in their action by either investigating multipotential compounds or by using a combination of compounds. Taurine, an endogenous(More)
Chromosome 6p is one of the most commonly implicated regions in the genome-wide linkage scans of schizophrenia, whereas further association studies for markers in this region were inconsistent likely due to heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify more homogeneous subgroups of families for fine mapping on regions around markers D6S296 and D6S309 (both in(More)
The effects of taurine in the mammalian nervous system are numerous and varied. There has been great difficulty in determining the specific targets of taurine action. The authors present a review of accepted taurine action and highlight recent discoveries regarding taurine and calcium homeostasis in neurons. In general there is a consensus that taurine is a(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA is converted from glutamic acid by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). There are two forms of GAD in the brain, GAD65 and GAD67, referring to a molecular weight of 65 and 67 kDa, respectively. Perturbations in GABAergic(More)