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l-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) exists as both membrane-associated and soluble forms in the mammalian brain. Here, we propose that there is a functional and structural coupling between the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by membrane-associated GAD and its packaging into synaptic vesicles (SVs) by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This(More)
Taurine demonstrates multiple cellular functions including a central role as a neurotransmitter, as a trophic factor in CNS development, in maintaining the structural integrity of the membrane, in regulating calcium transport and homeostasis, as an osmolyte, as a neuromodulator and as a neuroprotectant. The neurotransmitter properties of taurine are(More)
Taurine is a free amino acid present in high concentrations in a variety of organs of mammalians. As an antioxidant, taurine has been found to protect cells against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this report, we present evidence to support the conclusion that taurine exerts a protective function against endoplasmic(More)
Previously, it has been shown that taurine exerts its protective function against glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity through its action in reducing glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular free calcium, [Ca2+]i. Here, we report the mechanism underlying the effect of taurine in reducing [Ca2+]i. We found that taurine inhibited glutamate-induced(More)
This review focuses on the recent advances that were made in understanding the fundamental mechanisms of the regulation of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; E.C. 4.1.1.15), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). In the brain, there are two isoforms of GAD- GAD67 and GAD65, where(More)
In stroke and neurodegenerative disease, neuronal excitotoxicity, caused by increased extracellular glutamate levels, is known to result in calcium overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial deficits may involve a deficiency in energy supply as well as generation of high levels of oxidants which are key contributors to neuronal cell death through(More)
Taurine has potent protective function against glutamate-induced neuronal injury presumably through its function in regulation of intracellular free calcium level, [Ca2+]i. In this communication, we report that taurine exerts its protective function through one or more of the following mechanisms: 1. Inhibition of glutamate-induced calcium influx through(More)
Taurine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and is one of the most abundant amino acids present in the mammalian nervous system. Taurine has been shown to provide protection against neurological diseases, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. It is(More)
In the present era, investigators seek to find therapeutic interventions that are multifaceted in their mode of action. Such targets provide the most advantageous routes for addressing the multiplicity of pathophysiological avenues that lead to neuronal dysfunction and death observed in neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Taurine, an(More)
Ischemic stroke exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. To address the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms observed in ischemic stroke investigators seek to find therapeutic strategies that are multifaceted in their action by either investigating multipotential compounds or by using a combination of compounds. Taurine, an endogenous(More)