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OBJECTIVE Adiponectin is an important adipocytokine that improves insulin action and reduces atherosclerotic processes. The plasma adiponectin level is paradoxically reduced in obese individuals, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial function is linked to adiponectin synthesis in(More)
Previous rodent studies showed that when injected into the brain, free fatty acids (FFAs) reduced food intake in an oleate-specific manner. The present study was performed to test whether food intake is regulated by circulating FFAs in an oleate-specific manner. Male Wistar rats received an intravenous infusion of olive, safflower, or coconut oil (100mg/h),(More)
OBJECTIVE Lipid accumulation in vascular endothelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in obese subjects. We showed previously that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese rats. Here, we investigated whether ALA improves endothelial(More)
Patients treated with glucocorticoids have elevated skeletal muscle ouabain binding sites. The major Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) isoform proteins found in muscle, alpha2 and beta1, are increased by 50% in rats treated for 14 days with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX). This study addressed whether the DEX-induced increase in the muscle NKA pool(More)
Starvation and experimental diabetes induce a stable increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity in skeletal muscle, which is largely due to a selective upregulation of PDK-4 expression. Increased free fatty acid (FFA) level has been suggested to be responsible for the upregulation. Because these metabolic states are also characterized by(More)
Licochalcone A (LicA), an estrogenic flavonoid, induces apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of LicA were investigated in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. LicA induced apoptotic cell death, activation of caspase-4, -9, and -3, and expression of endoplasmic(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucokinase (GCK) acts as a component of the "glucose sensor" in pancreatic β-cells and possibly in other tissues, including the brain. However, >99% of GCK in the body is located in the liver, where it serves as a "gatekeeper", determining the rate of hepatic glucose phosphorylation. Mutations in GCK are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the(More)
To evaluate the role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in fat-induced insulin resistance, we examined whether fat-induced insulin resistance is additive to that induced by increased HBP flux via glucosamine infusion and, if so, whether such additive effects correlate with muscle HBP product levels. Prolonged hyperinsulinemic (approximately 550(More)
Renal K(+) excretion is increased rapidly following dietary K(+) intake, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Sorensen and colleagues show that K(+) intake in mice provoked rapid and near-complete dephosphorylation of the renal distal convoluted tubule NaCl cotransporter, temporally associated with increases in both Na(+) and K(+)(More)
Inflammation is implicated in metabolic abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because θ-defensins have anti-inflammatory activities, we tested whether RTD-1, a θ-defensin, improves metabolic conditions in diet-induced obesity (DIO). DIO was induced by high-fat feeding in obese-prone CD rats from 4 wk of age. Starting at age 10 wk, the DIO rats were(More)