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The CRR1 (Copper Response Regulator) locus, required for both activating and repressing target genes of a copper- and hypoxia-sensing pathway in Chlamydomonas, encodes a 1,232-residue candidate transcription factor with a plant-specific DNA-binding domain named SBP, ankyrin repeats, and a C-terminal Cys-rich region, with similarity to a Drosophila(More)
Photosynthetic organisms are among the earliest life forms on earth and their biochemistry is strictly dependent on a wide range of inorganic nutrients owing to the use of metal cofactor-dependent enzymes in photosynthesis, respiration, inorganic nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic eukaryotic model organism for(More)
BACKGROUND COG0523 proteins are, like the nickel chaperones of the UreG family, part of the G3E family of GTPases linking them to metallocenter biosynthesis. Even though the first COG0523-encoding gene, cobW, was identified almost 20 years ago, little is known concerning the function of other members belonging to this ubiquitous family. RESULTS Based on a(More)
The Cpx1 and Cyc6 genes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are activated in copper-deficient cells via a signal transduction pathway that requires copper response elements (CuREs) and a copper response regulator defined by the CRR1 locus. The two genes can also be activated by provision of nickel or cobalt ions in the medium. The response to nickel ions requires(More)
Iron constitutes a major source of toxicity due to its ability to generate reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular macromolecules. However, the precise mechanism by which exposure to high iron concentrations results in cellular toxicity remains unknown. Here we identify sphingolipid synthesis and signaling as a major mediator of iron toxicity in S.(More)
Previously, we had identified FOX1 and FTR1 as iron deficiency-inducible components of a high-affinity copper-dependent iron uptake pathway in Chlamydomonas. In this work, we survey the version 3.0 draft genome to identify a ferrireductase, FRE1, and two ZIP family proteins, IRT1 and IRT2, as candidate ferrous transporters based on their increased(More)
The c-type cytochromes are metalloproteins with a heme molecule covalently linked to the sulfhydryls of a CXXCH heme-binding site. In plastids, at least six assembly factors are required for heme attachment to the apo-forms of cytochrome f and cytochrome c(6) in the thylakoid lumen. CCS5, controlling plastid cytochrome c assembly, was identified through(More)
When the abundance of the FOX1 gene product is reduced, Chlamydomonas cells grow poorly in iron-deficient medium, but not in iron-replete medium, suggesting that FOX1-dependent iron uptake is a high-affinity pathway. Alternative pathways for iron assimilation, such as those involving ZIP family transporters IRT1 and IRT2, may be operational.
In plastids, the conversion of energy in the form of light to ATP requires key electron shuttles, the c-type cytochromes, which are defined by the covalent attachment of heme to a CXXCH motif. Plastid c-type cytochrome biogenesis occurs in the thylakoid lumen and requires a system for transmembrane transfer of reductants. Previously, CCDA and CCS5/HCF164,(More)
Inducible high-affinity copper uptake is key to copper homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We generated cDNAs and updated gene models for four genes, CTR1, CTR2, CTR3, and COPT1, encoding CTR-type copper transporters in Chlamydomonas. The expression of CTR1, CTR2, and CTR3 increases in copper deficient cells and in response to hypoxia or Ni(2+)(More)