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This study forms part of a larger programme of work aimed at developing improved medical countermeasures for nerve agent poisoning with less reliance on pretreatment. Therapy with N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), physostigmine, hyoscine and HI-6 protected guinea-pigs against the incapacitating and lethal effects of a supralethal challenge of soman (135(More)
This paper describes a method of measuring EEG in guinea pigs by means of temporarily attached superficial electrodes with radiotelemetry equipment. This represents an alternative approach to more conventional methods of monitoring EEG in animals, which necessitate surgical implantation of electrodes. The novel approach of using superficial electrodes was(More)
Alpha-dendrotoxin (alpha-DTx), a snake venom toxin which blocks several types of fast-activating voltage-dependent potassium channels, induces limbic seizures and neuronal damage when injected into the brain. The mechanisms underlying these convulsant and neuropathological actions are not fully understood. We have studied the effects of alpha-DTx on(More)
The effects of the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor soman (31.2 micrograms/kg s.c.) on guinea-pig brain AChE, transmitter, and metabolite levels were investigated. Concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and their metabolites, and six putative amino acid(More)
This study is drawn from a work programme aimed at developing improved medical counter measures for nerve agent poisoning. Guinea-pigs were administered pyridostigmine (5.1 microg/h) or physostigmine (4.7 microg/h) and hyoscine (1.94 microg/h) for 6 days via a subcutaneously implanted mini osmotic pump. Pyridostigmine inhibited red cell acetylcholinesterase(More)
1. In brain areas of untreated guinea-pigs the highest activity of acetylcholinesterase was seen in the striatum and cerebellum, followed by the midbrain, medulla-pons and cortex, and the lowest in the hippocampus. The activity in diaphragm was seven-fold lower than in the hippocampus. 2. At 1 h after soman (27 micrograms/kg) administration the activity of(More)
Six brain areas of rats and guinea-pigs, killed by microwave irradiation, were used for the concomitant measurement of the levels and regional distribution of cholinergic, biogenic amine, and amino acid neurotransmitters and metabolites. Acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) were quantified by chemiluminescence; noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA),(More)
The central toxicities of two potassium ion channel blockers, apamin and alpha-dendrotoxin (DTx), have been compared. Both apamin and dendrotoxin injected intracerebroventricularly produced signs of poisoning, including tremor and ataxia; however, only DTx produced changes in brain electrical activity, with high voltage spikes and epileptiform activity and(More)