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Neurofilaments are essential for establishment and maintenance of axonal diameter of large myelinated axons, a property that determines the velocity of electrical signal conduction. One prominent model for how neurofilaments specify axonal growth is that the 660-amino acid, heavily phosphorylated tail domain of neurofilament heavy subunit (NF-H) is(More)
Neurofilaments (NFs), which are composed of NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H, are required for the development of normal axonal caliber, a property that in turn is a critical determinant of axonal conduction velocity. To investigate how each subunit contributes to the radial growth of axons, we used transgenic mice to alter the subunit composition of NFs. Increasing(More)
Injury to epidermis and other stratified epithelia triggers profound but transient changes in the pattern of keratin expression. In postmitotic cells located at the wound edge, a strong induction of K6, K16, and K17 synthesis occurs at the expense of the keratins produced under the normal situation. The functional significance of these alterations in(More)
Testes from flight rats on COSMOS 2044 and simulated-launch, vivarium, or caudal-elevation control rats (5/group) were analyzed by subjective and quantitative methods. On the basis of observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to(More)
Atrazine is an herbicide used worldwide to control grasses and weeds. Previous studies have shown that, depending on atrazine's administered dose, exposure of male rats during the early postnatal or peripubertal periods can result in alterations in endocrine function. The gestational period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agents; however, the(More)
Much of what is known about the molecular regulation and function of adult Sertoli cells has been inferred from in vitro studies of immature Sertoli cells. However, adult and immature cells differ in significant ways and, moreover, many Sertoli cell functions are regulated by conditions that are difficult to replicate in vitro. Our objective was to develop(More)
During mammalian spermatogenesis, the transcription of several genes in Sertoli cells is turned on and off as the adjacent male germ cells progress through the stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. A requirement for defining how germ cells regulate this process is the identification of a promoter that confers, in vivo, accurate, stage-specific(More)
Aging in Brown Norway rats is accompanied by the reduced production of testosterone by the Leydig cells, the testicular cells responsible for synthesizing and secreting this essential steroid. As yet, the mechanism by which Leydig cell steroidogenesis is reduced is unknown. Herein we assess the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by intact(More)
The Sertoli cell intermediate filament cytoskeleton is composed of the type III family member vimentin. The distribution of Sertoli cell vimentin varies with the stage of spermatogenesis, with shortening of the filaments at stages VII-VIII, the stages of spermiation. Experimental reduction in intratesticular testosterone (T) concentration also results in(More)
Cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) is critical in determining cortisol and sex steroid biosynthesis. To investigate how CYP17 functions in vivo, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of CYP17. Although in chimeric mice Leydig cell CYP17 mRNA and intratesticular and circulating testosterone levels were dramatically reduced (80%),(More)