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In this review, we discuss two broad approaches we have taken to study the role of cytokines and chemokines in antiviral immunity. Firstly, recombinant vaccinia viruses were engineered to express genes encoding cytokines and chemokines of interest. Potent antiviral activity was mediated by many of these encoded factors, including IL-2, IL-12, IFN-gamma,(More)
Poxviruses encode multiple proteins that enable them to evade host responses. Among these are serine protease inhibitors (serpins). One of the earliest serpins described, cowpox virus crmA, acts to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis. crmA homologous serpins, known as SPI-2, are conserved in rabbitpox, vaccinia and variola viruses. Here, we describe the(More)
Some cytokines are known to have potent antiviral activity in vitro, and recent work shows that severely immunodeficient mice, which lack conventional effector T cells, can still recover from virus infection provided these factors are present at sites of virus replication. Here Alistair Ramsay, Janet Ruby and Ian Ramshaw discuss these findings and raise(More)
Recent reports have highlighted a potential antiviral activity for nitric oxide (NO). The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of NO in mice during vaccinia virus (VV) or herpes simplex virus type 1 infection, and to assess the role of NO in clearance of VV. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI; NO and its stable oxidation products,(More)
The antiviral nature of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is generally well accepted. TNF appears to induce multiple antiviral mechanisms, and to synergize with interferon (IFN)-gamma in promoting antiviral activities. We infected TNF receptor (TNFR)-deficient mice with the virulent murine pathogen, ectromelia virus (EV), and observed that otherwise resistant(More)
Vaccinia virus (VV) is a cytopathic virus that in normal mice exhibits only low virulence. However, when mice were treated throughout the course of the infection with mAb to IFN-gamma, the virus was lethal. The inability of these mice to clear the infection was not due to inhibition of effector T cell development since equally high numbers of cytotoxic T(More)
We have investigated the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mice infected with vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus replicates to high levels in the ovaries of infected mice and causes a significant inhibition of host cell DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Many HSPs are constitutively expressed in murine ovarian tissue at low levels, consistent with their(More)
HSP72 is dramatically induced in the ovaries of vaccinia virus (VV)-infected mice and associates with VV proteins. In order to investigate the role of HSP72 during vaccinia virus replication, we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the major inducible cellular HSP72 (VV-HSP72+) and examined the replication characteristics of this virus.(More)
The production of cytokines by virus immune spleen cells after in vitro restimulation was investigated. Vaccinia virus-primed spleen cells from CBA/H mice were stimulated in vitro with virus-infected UV-irradiated syngeneic cells. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations proliferated after restimulation. TNF, IL-6, and IFN-gamma were detected within 12 h of(More)