Janet M. Manson

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The enterococci are low-GC Gram-positive bacteria that have emerged as leading causes of hospital-acquired infection. They are also commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and most other animals with gastrointestinal flora and are important for food fermentations. Here we report the availability of draft genome sequences for 28(More)
Bacitracin resistance (bacitracin MIC, >/=256 microg ml(-1)) has been reported in Enterococcus faecalis, and in the present study we report on the genetic basis for this resistance. Mutagenesis was carried out with transposon Tn917 to select for E. faecalis mutants with decreased resistance to bacitracin. Two bacitracin-sensitive mutants (MICs, 32 microg(More)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a dynamic environment and therefore the stability of the commensal community, or microbiota, is under constant challenge. Microscopic observations have revealed that the majority of bacteria present in the GI tract are not detected using standard culturing techniques, however with the application of culture-independent(More)
We report here on the characterization of a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF) isolated from a dog with mastitis. The isolate was positive for the vanA, ermB, and tet(M) genes, with vanA and ermB carried on the same transferable plasmid. Comparison of this isolate with VREF from poultry and human sources in New Zealand demonstrated identical(More)
The Enterococcus faecalis pathogenicity island (PAI) encodes known virulence traits and >100 additional genes with unknown roles in enterococcal biology. Phage-related integration and excision genes, and direct repeats flanking the island, suggest it moves as an integrative conjugative element (ICE). However, transfer was observed not to require these(More)
Large amounts of tylosin, zinc-bacitracin, and avilamycin are currently used as prophylactics in New Zealand broiler production. Avoparcin was also used from 1977 to 2000. A total of 382 enterococci were isolated from 213 fecal samples (147 individual poultry farms) using enrichment broths plated on m-Enterococcus agar lacking antimicrobials. These isolates(More)
There is increasing concern regarding the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in domestically farmed animals, which may act as reservoirs and vehicles of transmission for drug-resistant enterococci to humans, resulting in serious infections. In order to assess the potential for the use of monolaurin as a food preservative, it is important to(More)
Avoparcin was used as a feed additive in New Zealand broiler production from 1977 until June 2000. We report here on the effects of the usage and discontinuation of avoparcin on the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broilers. Eighty-two VRE isolates were recovered from poultry fecal samples between 2000 and mid-2001. VRE isolates were(More)
Spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections urges for novel therapeutic or prophylactic targets and for innovative pathogen-specific antibacterial compounds. Major challenges are posed by opportunistic pathogens belonging to the low GC% gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Enterococcus faecalis(More)
Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis possess numerous mobile elements that encode virulence and antibiotic resistance traits as well as new metabolic pathways, often constituting over one-quarter of the genome. It was of interest to determine how this large accretion of mobile elements affects competitive growth in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract(More)