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Solitary rod inner segments were isolated from salamander retinae. Their Ca current was studied with the 'whole-cell, gigaseal' technique (Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth, 1981). The soluble constituents of the cytoplasm exchanged with the solution in the pipette. The external solution could be changed during continuous perfusion. Membrane voltage(More)
Excitotoxic neuronal injury is known to be associated with increases in cytosolic calcium ion concentrations. However, it is not known if perturbations in other intracellular ions are also associated with glutamate (GLU)-induced neuronal death. Accordingly, intracellular hydrogen ion concentrations were measured in cultured hippocampal neurons with the(More)
The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells. GH4/C1 cells possess much(More)
To elucidate endogenous mechanisms underlying cerebral damage during ischemia, brain polyamine oxidase activity was measured in rats subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Brain polyamine oxidase activity was increased significantly within 2 h after the onset of ischemia in brain homogenates (15.8 +/- 0.9 nmol/h/mg protein) as(More)
Striatal and cortical mitochondria from knock-in and transgenic mutant huntingtin mice were examined for their sensitivity to calcium induction of the permeability transition, a cause of mitochondrial depolarization and ATP loss. The permeability transition has been suggested to contribute to cell death in Huntington's Disease. Mitochondria were examined(More)
Experiments were performed to study the feasibility of two mechanisms of acetylcholine receptor (ACHR) accumulation in chick myotubes: diffusion and trapping of previously dispersed surface receptors and localized insertion of new receptors at accumulation sites. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements indicated that the majority of(More)
The mechanisms of Ca2+-induced release of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) from rat brain mitochondria were examined quantitatively using a capture ELISA. In 75 or 125 mm KCl-based media 1.4 micromol Ca2+/mg protein caused depolarization and mitochondrial swelling. However, this resulted in partial Cyt c release only in 75 mm KCl. The release was inhibited by Ru360, an(More)
Mitochondria were simultaneously isolated from striatum and cortex of adult rats and compared in functional assays for their sensitivity to calcium activation of the permeability transition. Striatal mitochondria showed an increased dose-dependent sensitivity to Ca2+ compared with cortical mitochondria, as measured by mitochondrial depolarization, swelling,(More)
Creatine and phosphocreatine were evaluated for their ability to prevent death of cultured striatal and hippocampal neurons exposed to either glutamate or 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) and to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition in CNS mitochondria. Phosphocreatine (PCr), and to a lesser extent creatine (Cr), but not(More)
Isolated brain mitochondria were examined for their responses to calcium challenges under varying conditions. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by following the distribution of tetraphenylphosphonium ions in the mitochondrial suspension, mitochondrial swelling by observing absorbance changes, calcium accumulation by an external calcium(More)