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To elucidate endogenous mechanisms underlying cerebral damage during ischemia, brain polyamine oxidase activity was measured in rats subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Brain polyamine oxidase activity was increased significantly within 2 h after the onset of ischemia in brain homogenates (15.8 +/- 0.9 nmol/h/mg protein) as(More)
Striatal and cortical mitochondria from knock-in and transgenic mutant huntingtin mice were examined for their sensitivity to calcium induction of the permeability transition, a cause of mitochondrial depolarization and ATP loss. The permeability transition has been suggested to contribute to cell death in Huntington's Disease. Mitochondria were examined(More)
Mitochondria were simultaneously isolated from striatum and cortex of adult rats and compared in functional assays for their sensitivity to calcium activation of the permeability transition. Striatal mitochondria showed an increased dose-dependent sensitivity to Ca2+ compared with cortical mitochondria, as measured by mitochondrial depolarization, swelling,(More)
The mechanisms of Ca2+-induced release of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) from rat brain mitochondria were examined quantitatively using a capture ELISA. In 75 or 125 mm KCl-based media 1.4 micromol Ca2+/mg protein caused depolarization and mitochondrial swelling. However, this resulted in partial Cyt c release only in 75 mm KCl. The release was inhibited by Ru360, an(More)
Creatine and phosphocreatine were evaluated for their ability to prevent death of cultured striatal and hippocampal neurons exposed to either glutamate or 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) and to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition in CNS mitochondria. Phosphocreatine (PCr), and to a lesser extent creatine (Cr), but not(More)
Isolated brain mitochondria were examined for their responses to calcium challenges under varying conditions. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by following the distribution of tetraphenylphosphonium ions in the mitochondrial suspension, mitochondrial swelling by observing absorbance changes, calcium accumulation by an external calcium(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The prostanoid-synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is markedly upregulated after cerebral ischemia and may participate in the mechanisms by which postischemic inflammation contributes to the late stages of ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we sought to provide additional evidence for a role of COX-2 in the mechanisms(More)
Activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition may contribute to excitotoxic neuronal death (Ankarcrona et al., 1996; Dubinsky and Levi, 1998). However, cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent inhibitor of the permeability transition in liver mitochondria, only protects against neuronal injury by limited doses of glutamate and selected ischemic paradigms.(More)
The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) has been implicated in both excitotoxic and apoptotic neuronal cell death, despite the fact that it has not been previously identified in neurons. To study the mPT in hippocampal neurons, cultures were loaded with the mitochondrial dye JC-1 and observed with confocal and conventional microscopy. After(More)
  • J M Dubinsky
  • 1993
Intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) among cultured hippocampal neurons were monitored during and in the hours following an excitotoxic glutamate application to determine the time course of changes involved in delayed excitotoxicity. After a 5 min toxic insult, [Ca2+]i increased immediately and remained elevated for an hour. Subsequently, [Ca2+]i(More)