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OBJECTIVE This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. METHODS We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11(More)
Bone tissue arises from mesenchymal cells induced into the osteoblast lineage by essential transcription factors and signaling cascades. MicroRNAs regulate biological processes by binding to mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences to attenuate protein synthesis. Here we performed microRNA profiling and identified miRs that are up-regulated through(More)
Key components of DNA replication and the basal transcriptional machinery as well as several tissue-specific transcription factors are compartmentalized in specialized nuclear domains. In the present study, we show that determinants of subnuclear targeting of the bone-related Runx2/Cbfa1 protein reside in the C-terminus. With a panel of C-terminal(More)
The clinical and research value of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) depends upon maintaining their epigenetically naïve, fully undifferentiated state. Inactivation of one X chromosome in each cell of mammalian female embryos is a paradigm for one of the earliest steps in cell specialization through formation of facultative heterochromatin. Mouse ES cells(More)
Both activating and null mutations of proteins required for canonical WNT signaling have revealed the importance of this pathway for normal skeletal development. However, tissue-specific transcriptional mechanisms through which WNT signaling promotes the differentiation of bone-forming cells have yet to be identified. Here, we address the hypothesis that(More)
Lineage progression in osteoblasts and chondrocytes is stringently controlled by the cell-fate-determining transcription factor Runx2. In this study, we directly addressed whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can control the osteogenic activity of Runx2 and affect osteoblast maturation. A panel of 11 Runx2-targeting miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-30c, miR-34c, miR-133a,(More)
Adaptive responses of bacteria that involve sensing the presence of other bacteria are often critical for proliferation and the expression of virulence characteristics. The autoinducer II (AI-2) pathway has recently been shown to be a mechanism for sensing other bacteria that is highly conserved among diverse bacterial species, including Gram-positive(More)
We present an overview of Runx involvement in regulatory mechanisms that are requisite for fidelity of bone cell growth and differentiation, as well as for skeletal homeostasis and the structural and functional integrity of skeletal tissue. Runx-mediated control is addressed from the perspective of support for biological parameters of skeletal gene(More)
Two homeotic genes, Dlx and Msx, appear to regulate development of mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, and tooth. Expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 has been studied during development of the osteoblast phenotype, but the role of Dlx in this context and in the regulation of bone-expressed genes is unknown. We used targeted differential display to(More)
BMP2 signaling and RUNX2 regulatory pathways converge for transcriptional control of bone formation in vivo. SMAD proteins are recruited to RUNX2 regulatory complexes via an overlapping nuclear matrix targeting signal/Smad interacting domain sequence (391-432) in Runx2. To establish the contribution of RUNX2-SMAD interaction to osteoblastogenesis, we(More)