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The stringent response is a mechanism by which bacteria adapt to nutritional deficiencies through the production of the guanine nucleotides ppGpp and pppGpp, produced by the RelA enzyme. We investigated the role of the relA gene in the ability of an extracellular pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to cause infection. Strains lacking the relA gene were(More)
The immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily consists of many critical immune regulators, including the B7 family ligands and receptors. In this study, we identify a novel and structurally distinct Ig superfamily inhibitory ligand, whose extracellular domain bears homology to the B7 family ligand PD-L1. This molecule is designated V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell(More)
We provide the first evidence for a link between polyamines and biofilm levels in Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Polyamine-deficient mutants of Y. pestis were generated with a single deletion in speA or speC and a double deletion mutant. The genes speA and speC code for the biosynthetic enzymes arginine decarboxylase and ornithine(More)
B cell-deficient mice are susceptible to infection by Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris (PC). To determine whether this susceptibility is due to a requirement for B cells to prime T cells, we compared CD4 T cell responses to PC in bone marrow chimeric mice that express MHC class II (MHCII) on all APCs (wild-type (WT) chimeras) and in bone marrow chimeric(More)
V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a novel negative checkpoint ligand that is homologous to PD-L1 and suppresses T-cell activation. This study demonstrates the multiple mechanisms whereby VISTA relieves negative regulation by hematopoietic cells and enhances protective antitumor immunity. VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells and(More)
In the past few years, the field of cancer immunotherapy has made great progress and is finally starting to change the way cancer is treated. We are now learning that multiple negative checkpoint regulators (NCR) restrict the ability of T-cell responses to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes through antibody blockade, first with anti-CTLA4 and(More)
In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged(More)
Influenza virus is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in children; however, little is known about the T cell response in infant lungs. Neonatal mice are highly vulnerable to influenza and only control very low doses of virus. We compared the T cell response to influenza virus infection between mice infected as adults or at 2 d old and observed(More)
V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a potent negative regulator of T-cell function that is expressed on hematopoietic cells. VISTA levels are heightened within the tumor microenvironment, in which its blockade can enhance antitumor immune responses in mice. In humans, blockade of the related programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway has(More)
Pneumocystis pneumonia was first diagnosed in malnourished children and has more recently been found in children with upper respiratory symptoms. We previously reported that there is a significant delay in the immune response in newborn mice infected with Pneumocystis compared to adults (Garvy BA, Harmsen AG, Infect. Immun. 64:3987-3992, 1996, and Garvy BA,(More)