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The relation of antioxidant nutrients to the incidence of nuclear cataracts was investigated in a cohort of adults aged 43-84 years in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (Beaver Dam, Wisconsin). Nuclear opacity was assessed on a five-point ordinal scale using lens photographs taken at baseline (1988-1990) and at follow-up (1993-1995). Of the 1,354 persons eligible,(More)
During a 40-day balance study, eight adult males were fed two levels of aluminium: 5 mg/day for 20 days (control diet) and 125 mg/day for 20 days (test diet). Every subject excreted more than 96% and more than 74% of his aluminium intake in his faeces when fed the test and control diets, respectively. Subjects excreted two- to five-fold more aluminium in(More)
Manganese intake can vary greatly with food choices, water composition, and supplement use. Thus, individuals consuming Western diets consume from < 1 to > 10 mg Mn/d. The levels of manganese intake associated with adverse effects (both deficient and toxic) are debatable. Moreover, many of the symptoms of manganese deficiency (growth retardation, changes in(More)
BACKGROUND It is not known whether the protective effects of antioxidants on cataract observed in experimental animals are relevant to age-related opacities in humans. OBJECTIVE The relations of serum carotenoids and tocopherols to the incidence of age-related nuclear cataract were investigated in a random sample of 400 adults, 50-86 y of age, in the(More)
Although the full mechanisms are not yet elucidated, research into the mechanism of toxicity of aluminum (Al) on bone formation and remodeling and on hematopoietic tissue is ongoing. In contrast little information exists on the interactive effects of systemic Al and the kidney. In bone, both clinically and experimentally, high doses of Al inhibit(More)
The interactive effects of manganese and iron on true absorption and endogenous losses of manganese were investigated by feeding rats three levels of manganese (0.9, 48 or 188 micrograms Mn/g diet) and two levels of iron (19 or 276 micrograms Fe/g diet) for 7 wk. After 45 d, half of the rats were fed 54Mn and half were injected intraportally with 54Mn(More)
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative usefulness of various measures to monitor body aluminum burden in weanling rats fed various amounts of aluminum (0.39 mumol Al/g diet for 29 days, approximately 40 mumol Al/g diet with or without citrate for 29 days and approximately 100 mumol Al/g diet with citrate for 12 or 29 days) or(More)
We hypothesized that biliary excretion of manganese would be sensitive to acute and chronic variations in manganese and fat intakes. In the acute study, we gavaged rats with solutions containing 54Mn with either 0, 0.2, 1 or 10 mg Mn as MnCl2. We collected bile from unanesthesized rats that were simultaneously reinfused with bile acids. Total manganese(More)
Manganese homeostasis is believed to be maintained by excretion of excess absorbed manganese through the gut, but the extent of endogenous gut losses of manganese has not been quantitated. We developed a model with rats to quantitate endogenous gut losses of manganese in which the parenterally administered isotope was distributed like fed isotope.(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify relationships between dietary intake of zinc and antioxidant nutrients and early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM). DESIGN A retrospective longitudinal cohort design using data pertaining to diets in the past (1978-1980), which were assessed retrospectively using a food frequency questionnaire. SETTING Beaver Dam, Wis. (More)