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Trichloroethylene is metabolised to a very minor extent (< 0.01% of the dose) by conjugation with glutathione, a metabolic pathway which leads to the formation of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), a bacterial mutagen and nephrotoxin activated by the renal enzyme beta-lyase. The role of this metabolic pathway in the development of the nephrotoxicity(More)
AIMS To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of trichloroethylene in a currently exposed population using sensitive urinary markers of kidney toxicity. METHODS Renal dysfunction was monitored in a cross-sectional study of 70 workers currently exposed to trichloroethylene. An age and sex matched control population of 54 individuals was drawn from hospital(More)
Exposure of rats to trichloroethylene induces a sustained excretion of large amounts of formic acid in urine. Both of the major metabolites, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid, were found to induce this response, but not the minor metabolite S-(1, 2-dichlorovinyl) cysteine. Other polychlorinated solvents, including carbon tetrachloride and(More)
Rats exposed to trichloroethylene, either by gavage or by inhalation, excreted large amounts of formic acid in urine which was accompanied by a change in urinary pH, increased excretion of ammonia, and slight increases in the excretion of calcium. Following a single 6-h exposure to 500 ppm trichloroethylene, the excretion of formic acid was comparable to(More)
The objectives of the present study were to characterize and compare the repertoire of cytokine-genes transcribed in skin homogenates obtained from normal dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and canine-specific cytokine-gene primers. Whereas IL-4 and IL-5 cytokine-gene transcripts were detected(More)
The acute stage of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is characterized by the appearance of a major CD8 subpopulation with reduced expression of the CD8 beta chain (CD8alpha+betalo). CD8 antiviral activity was subsequently shown to be mediated by the CD8alpha+betalo phenotype, which is the dominant CD8 phenotype in long-term infected cats. Two-(More)
The B7.1 and B7.2 costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells provide second signals for regulating T cell immune responses via CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) on T cells. CD28 signals cell proliferation, whereas CTLA4 signals for anergy or apoptosis, terminating the immune response. Because T cell apoptosis and immunodeficiency is(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoglycemia is a side effect of diabetes therapy and causes abnormal heart development. Embryonic heart cells are largely resistant to teratogen-induced apoptosis. METHODS Hypoglycemia was tested for effects on cell death and cell proliferation in embryonic heart cells by exposing mouse embryos on embryonic day (E) 9.5 (plug = E0.5) to(More)
Apoptosis in lymph node (LN) T cells of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats is associated with cells co-expressing B7.1 and B7.2 costimulatory molecules, and their ligand CTLA4. To study the possibility of B7.1/B7.2-CTLA4 mediated T-T interactions and the predicted induction of T cell apoptosis in vitro, costimulatory molecules were(More)
Lymph node (LN) T cells from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats have an increased expression of B7 co-stimulatory molecules as well as their ligand CTLA4, resembling an activation phenotype shown to induce anergy and apoptosis in activated T cells. In addition, LN T cells from FIV-infected cats also show increased spontaneous apoptosis(More)
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