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A fourth type of RTX determinant was identified in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and was designated apxIVA. When expressed in Escherichia coli, recombinant ApxIVA showed a weak haemolytic activity and co-haemolytic synergy with the sphingomyelinase (beta-toxin) of Staphylococcus aureus. These activities required the presence of an additional gene, ORF1,(More)
Actinobacillus suis isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by biochemical testing, serotyping, restriction endonuclease fingerprinting, and apx toxin gene typing. The clinical isolates analyzed were collected over a 10-year period from approximately 40 different locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Little variation(More)
BACKGROUND Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially(More)
BACKGROUND Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes contagious pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of commercially reared pigs throughout the world. To cause this disease, A. pleuropneumoniae must rapidly overcome porcine pulmonary innate immune defenses. Since bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) contains many of the innate immune and other components(More)
In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are(More)
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome. BCWD has a considerable economic impact on aquaculture operations in Ontario, Canada, and our limited understanding of the population structure and epidemiology of F. psychrophilum isolates is an impediment to the development of improved(More)
To study the occurrence and distribution of various strains of Haemophilus parasuis in southern Ontario swine, organisms isolated from healthy swine, from specific pathogen-free and conventional herds, and from disease cases were examined using restriction endonuclease fingerprinting analysis. In most herds, several strains of H. parasuis could be detected(More)
Tonsillar and nasal swabs were collected from weanling pigs in 50 representative Ontario swine herds and tested for the presence of 5 important bacterial upper respiratory tract pathogens. All but 1 herd (2%) tested positive for Streptococcus suis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 48% of herds were S. suis serovar 2, 1/2 positive. In all but 2 herds there(More)
Currently available porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bacterins afford only minimal protection by decreasing mortality but not morbidity. To evaluate a possible role of IgG subclasses in protection, IgG1 and IgG2 responses to A. pleuropneumoniae haemolysin (HLY) were examined in piglets exposed to a low dose (10(5) c.f.u. ml-1) of A. pleuropneumoniae(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the degree of genetic relatedness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to selected members of the family Pasteurellaceae, with particular emphasis on species commonly associated with swine. Free-solution DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that representative strains of all 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae(More)