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PURPOSE OF REVIEW Few areas in neonatal medicine have generated as much discussion and controversy as the use of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. We summarize recent studies from the last 1-2 years. RECENT FINDINGS Systematic reviews show that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis but there are(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish how cause of death for live-born preterm infants (24-31 weeks gestation) has changed in a single large UK population over 2 decades. STUDY DESIGN This was an interrogation of a population-based survey of >680, 000 live births (between 1988 and 2008) for deaths in the first postnatal year. We collected cause of death grouped into(More)
The preterm gut microbiome is a complex dynamic community influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. We aimed to explore the longitudinal development of the gut microbiome in preterm twins to determine how shared environmental and genetic factors may influence temporal(More)
This observational study describes the ranges observed for lymphocyte subsets for significantly preterm infants (<32 weeks) in the first year of life, measured by single platform flow cytometry and compared to identically determined subsets in term infants. After ethical approval 39 term and 28 preterm infants had lymphocyte subset analysis before and after(More)
AIM To describe gut colonization in preterm infants using standard culture and 16S gene rRNA profiling, exploring differences in healthy infants and those who developed NEC/late onset sepsis (LOS). METHODS Ninety-nine stools from 38 infants of median 27-week gestation were cultured; 44 stools from 27 infants had their microbial profiles determined by 16S.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of viral infections in causing fetal and infant death. STUDY DESIGN We assessed a well-validated population database of fetal (≥20 weeks gestation) and infant death for infective deaths and deaths from viruses over a 21-year period (1988-2008). We analyzed by specific viral cause, timing (late fetal loss [20-23 weeks],(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Evidence suggests that microbial communities in the preterm gut may influence the development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. Existing data often neglect fungi and whether bacteria were metabolically active or not. We sought to characterise the bacterial and fungal stool flora of preterm neonates and organism viability and(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumocystis carinii is an important pathogen in immunodeficiency but may be an unrecognised cause of respiratory compromise. OBJECTIVES To ascertain the incidence of P carinii pneumonia (PCP) at presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), whether it had been diagnosed, and the effect of treatment on outcome. SETTING The(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure anti-polyribosylribitolphosphate (PRP) antibody and anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) antibody responses in UK infants to explore the effects of (1) immunization with an acellular diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPHib) combination vaccine, (2) significant preterm delivery, and (3) a fourth dose of conjugated Hib(More)