Janet E. Rubin

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Bone tissue has the capacity to adapt to its functional environment such that its morphology is "optimized" for the mechanical demand. The adaptive nature of the skeleton poses an interesting set of biological questions (e.g., how does bone sense mechanical signals, what cells are the sensing system, what are the mechanical signals that drive the system,(More)
Mechanical strain inhibits osteoclastogenesis by regulating osteoblast functions: We have shown that strain inhibits receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression and increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide levels through ERK1/2 signaling in primary bone stromal cells. The primary stromal culture system, while(More)
BACKGROUND Men with chronic lung disease (CLD) are at risk for osteoporosis, but the relative contributions of their chronic pulmonary disease, glucocorticoid therapy, and other factors toward loss of bone has not been established. Understanding the relative importance of these factors would assist in selecting patients for bone densitometry screening and(More)
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the crystal-collagen interactions in normal and osteoporotic human trabecular bone at the nanostructural level. More specifically, two-dimensional TEM observations were used to infer the three-dimensional information on the shape, the size, the orientation, and the alignment of apatite crystals(More)
The ability of exercise to decrease fat mass and increase bone mass may occur through mechanical biasing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) away from adipogenesis and toward osteoblastogenesis. C3H10T1/2 MSCs cultured in highly adipogenic medium express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adiponectin mRNA and protein, and accumulate(More)
Targeted gene studies have demonstrated the importance of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) for osteoblast (OB) differentiation and the acquisition of peak bone mineral density (BMD). The skeletal response to allelic differences in IGF-I expression can also be measured in vivo, using congenic mice. We created a congenic strain with reduced (approximately(More)
The transcription factor RUNX2 (Cbfa1/AML3/Pebp2alphaA) is a critical regulator of osteoblast differentiation. We investigated the effect of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) on the expression of RUNX2 because TNF is known to inhibit differentiation of osteoblasts from pluripotent progenitor cells. TNF treatment of fetal calvaria(More)
A wide range of cell types depend on mechanically induced signals to enable appropriate physiological responses. The skeleton is particularly dependent on mechanical information to guide the resident cell population towards adaptation, maintenance and repair. Research at the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels has improved our understanding of how the(More)
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), associated with skeletal fragility and hematologic insufficiency, remains poorly understood and difficult to quantify. We tested the response of MAT to high fat diet (HFD) and exercise using a novel volumetric analysis, and compared it to measures of bone quantity. We hypothesized that HFD would increase MAT and diminish bone(More)
Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be(More)