Janet E. Holt

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Within the mammalian ovary, oocytes remain arrested at G2 for several years. Then a peri-ovulatory hormonal cue triggers meiotic resumption by releasing an inhibitory phosphorylation on the kinase Cdk1. G2 arrest, however, also requires control in the concentrations of the Cdk1-binding partner cyclin B1, a process achieved by anaphase-promoting complex(More)
The molecular mechanisms behind the entry of the primordial follicle into the growing follicle pool remain poorly understood. To investigate this process further, a microarray-based comparison was undertaken between 2-day postpartum mouse ovaries consisting of primordial follicles/naked oocytes only and those with both primordial follicles and newly(More)
Currently, maternal aging in women, based on mouse models, is thought to raise oocyte aneuploidy rates, because chromosome cohesion deteriorates during prophase arrest, and Sgo2, a protector of centromeric cohesion, is lost. Here we show that the most common mouse strain, C57Bl6/J, is resistant to maternal aging, showing little increase in aneuploidy or(More)
FZR1, an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), is recognized for its roles in the mitotic cell cycle. To examine its meiotic function in females we generated an oocyte-specific knockout of the Fzr1 gene (Fzr1(Δ/Δ)). The total number of fully grown oocytes enclosed in cumulus complexes was 35-40% lower in oocytes from Fzr1(Δ/Δ) mice(More)
Homologous chromosomes are segregated during the first meiotic division (meiosis I). Unfortunately, human oocytes are particularly susceptible to mis-segregation errors, so generating aneuploid, often non-viable, embryos. Here we review the cell biology of meiosis I and how homolog disjunction is regulated for mammalian oocytes. We focus on the activity of(More)
In the dog, attempts to localize the expression of zona pellucida (ZP) proteins during folliculogenesis have failed to demonstrate conclusively whether any or all of the zona proteins are synthesized in the oocyte or the granulosa cells. Probing of paraformaldehyde-fixed prepubertal canine ovarian tissue sections with a panel of fluorescently conjugated(More)
Fizzy-related 1 (FZR1) is an activator of the Anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and an important regulator of the mitotic cell division cycle. Using a germ-cell-specific conditional knockout model we examined its role in entry into meiosis and early meiotic events in both sexes. Loss of APC/C(FZR1) activity in the male germline led to both a(More)
It is becoming clear that reduced chromosome cohesion is an important factor in the rise of maternal age-related aneuploidy. This reduction in cohesion has been observed both in human and mouse oocytes, and it can be measured directly by an increase with respect to maternal age in interkinetochore (iKT) distance between a sister chromatid pair. We have(More)
Spermatogenesis, the process of generating haploid sperm capable of fertilizing the female gamete, requires the timely transport into the nucleus of transcription and chromatin-remodeling factors, mediated by members of the importin (IMP) superfamily. Previous IMP expression profiling implies a role for IMPalpha2 in testicular germ cells late in(More)
Mammalian oocytes spend the majority of their lives in a dormant state, residing in primordial follicles. This arrest, most analogous to the G2 stage of the mitotic cell cycle division, is only broken in the hours preceding ovulation, when a hormonal rise induces meiotic resumption and entry into the first meiotic division. At a molecular level, this event(More)