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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this review is to provide guidance on the development, validation and use of food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for different study designs. It does not include any recommendations about the most appropriate method for dietary assessment (e.g. food-frequency questionnaire versus weighed record). METHODS A comprehensive search of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess if a school based intervention was effective in reducing risk factors for obesity. DESIGN Group randomised controlled trial. SETTING 10 primary schools in Leeds. PARTICIPANTS 634 children aged 7-11 years. INTERVENTION Teacher training, modification of school meals, and the development of school action plans targeting the(More)
BACKGROUND It has been recognised that adoption of self-management skills by the person with diabetes is necessary in order to manage their diabetes. However, the most effective method for delivering education and teaching self-management skills is unclear. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of group-based, patient-centred training on clinical, lifestyle(More)
BACKGROUND Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic fungal metabolite that frequently contaminates cereal crops. DON is toxic to animals, but the effects on humans are poorly understood, in part because exposure estimates are of limited precision. OBJECTIVES In this study we used the U.K. adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey to compare 24-hr urinary DON(More)
AIMS To develop a patient-centred, group-based self-management programme (X-PERT), based on theories of empowerment and discovery learning, and to assess the effectiveness of the programme on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS Adults with Type 2 diabetes (n = 314), living in Burnley, Pendle or Rossendale, Lancashire, UK were randomized(More)
BACKGROUND There is growing interest in the use of information communication technologies to treat obesity. An intervention delivered by smartphone could be a convenient, potentially cost-effective, and wide-reaching weight management strategy. Although there have been studies of texting-based interventions and smartphone applications (apps) used as(More)
BACKGROUND Results of epidemiological studies of dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk have not been consistent, possibly because of attenuation of associations due to measurement error in dietary exposure ascertainment. METHODS To examine the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a prospective case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Questions remain about the shape of the dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk, possible confounding by smoking, and differences by gender or geographic location. Whether abdominal obesity increases risk is unclear. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of(More)
In animals deoxynivalenol (DON) causes vomiting, feed refusal, growth retardation, and affects the immune system. DON is a common contaminant of wheat, however, validated biomarker data to assess exposure at the individual level and therefore any associated health effects are lacking. The development of a highly robust assay for urinary DON involving(More)
A review of the literature concerning the design, utilisation and validation of food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) has been carried out using a semi-systematic approach to obtaining, reviewing and extracting data from articles. Databases were searched from 1980 to 1999. The present review identified 227 validation (from 1980 to September 1999) and 164(More)