Janet E. Baulch

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The method of simultaneous three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was developed using repetitive DNA sequence probes for chromosomes 8, X and Y and applied to semen of 14 men from two healthy groups who differed in their average ages (46.8 +/- 3.1 years, n = 4 v. 28.9 +/- 5.0 years, n = 10). The frequencies of disomic sperm determined by(More)
As NASA prepares for the first manned spaceflight to Mars, questions have surfaced concerning the potential for increased risks associated with exposure to the spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that comprise galactic cosmic rays. Animal models have revealed an unexpected sensitivity of mature neurons in the brain to charged particles found in space.(More)
It has been acknowledged for many years that radiation exposure induces delayed, non-targeted effects in the progeny of the irradiated cell. Evidence is beginning to demonstrate that among these delayed effects of radiation are epigenetic aberrations, including altered DNA methylation. To test the hypothesis that differences in radiation quality affect(More)
Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression, could be the missing link in understanding radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). This study tests the hypothesis that irradiation induces epigenetic aberrations, which could eventually lead to RIGI, and that the epigenetic aberrations induced by low linear energy transfer (LET)(More)
PURPOSE To investigate radiation-induced bystander responses and to determine the role of gap junction intercellular communication and the radiation environment in propagating this response. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used medium transfer and targeted irradiation to examine radiation-induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (AG01522) and human(More)
It is now well accepted that the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure can be noticed far beyond the borders of the directly irradiated tissue. IR can affect neighboring cells in the proximity, giving rise to a bystander effect. IR effects can also span several generations and influence the progeny of exposed parents, leading to transgeneration(More)
Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to investigate variations in the frequency of aneuploid spermatids produced by males derived from three separate lines of Robertsonian translocations in mice: Rb(2.8)2Lub, Rb(8.12)22Lub, and Rb(8.14)16Rma, each with one arm involving chromosome 8. The DNA probes used were specific for(More)
PURPOSE This review examines the evidence for the hypothesis that epigenetics are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). CONCLUSION In addition to the extensively studied targeted effects of radiation, it is now apparent that non-targeted delayed effects such as RIGI are also important post-irradiation(More)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that drives phenotype and that can be altered by environmental exposures including radiation. The majority of human radiation exposures occur in a relatively low dose range; however, the biological response to low dose radiation is poorly understood. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that in vivo(More)
The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product maintains genome integrity and initiates cellular DNA repair pathways following exposures to genotoxic agents. ATM also plays a significant role in meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis. Fertilization with sperm carrying damaged DNA could lead to adverse effects in offspring including developmental(More)