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The method of simultaneous three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was developed using repetitive DNA sequence probes for chromosomes 8, X and Y and applied to semen of 14 men from two healthy groups who differed in their average ages (46.8 +/- 3.1 years, n = 4 v. 28.9 +/- 5.0 years, n = 10). The frequencies of disomic sperm determined by(More)
As NASA prepares for the first manned spaceflight to Mars, questions have surfaced concerning the potential for increased risks associated with exposure to the spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that comprise galactic cosmic rays. Animal models have revealed an unexpected sensitivity of mature neurons in the brain to charged particles found in space.(More)
PURPOSE This review examines the evidence for the hypothesis that epigenetics are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). CONCLUSION In addition to the extensively studied targeted effects of radiation, it is now apparent that non-targeted delayed effects such as RIGI are also important post-irradiation(More)
Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression, could be the missing link in understanding radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). This study tests the hypothesis that irradiation induces epigenetic aberrations, which could eventually lead to RIGI, and that the epigenetic aberrations induced by low linear energy transfer (LET)(More)
PURPOSE To investigate radiation-induced bystander responses and to determine the role of gap junction intercellular communication and the radiation environment in propagating this response. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used medium transfer and targeted irradiation to examine radiation-induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (AG01522) and human(More)
It is now well accepted that the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure can be noticed far beyond the borders of the directly irradiated tissue. IR can affect neighboring cells in the proximity, giving rise to a bystander effect. IR effects can also span several generations and influence the progeny of exposed parents, leading to transgeneration(More)
Compounds that can protect cells from the effects of radiation are important for clinical use, in the event of an accidental or terrorist-generated radiation event, and for astronauts traveling in space. One of the major concerns regarding the use of radio-protective agents is that they may protect cells initially, but predispose surviving cells to(More)
Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to investigate variations in the frequency of aneuploid spermatids produced by males derived from three separate lines of Robertsonian translocations in mice: Rb(2.8)2Lub, Rb(8.12)22Lub, and Rb(8.14)16Rma, each with one arm involving chromosome 8. The DNA probes used were specific for(More)
It has been acknowledged for many years that radiation exposure induces delayed, non-targeted effects in the progeny of the irradiated cell. Evidence is beginning to demonstrate that among these delayed effects of radiation are epigenetic aberrations, including altered DNA methylation. To test the hypothesis that differences in radiation quality affect(More)
Irradiation of male F0 mice 6 to 7 weeks prior to mating causes significant changes in the proliferation of F1 and F2 embryonic cells. These changes are revealed as a competitive cell proliferation disadvantage in chimera assays when the affected embryo is paired with a normal embryo in an aggregation chimera. This effect has been observed previously to be(More)