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Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We(More)
We have used a recombinant retrovirus carrying the lacZ gene to study the developmental potential of precursor cells from the embryonic rat cerebral cortex in dissociated cell culture. Virus was used to label a small number of cultured cells genetically so that their fate could be determined. Infected clones were detected with an anti-beta-galactosidase(More)
This paper describes a toolkit for measuring fun with children aged between 5 and 10. The relationship of fun to usability is discussed and three dimensions of fun; Endurability, Engagement, and Expectations are described. A set of tools that can be used in empirical studies to measure these dimensions of fun is described in detail. These tools include a(More)
This paper describes how initial principles for the designs of an interactive application were informed from a study of 'coolness' with two different ages of teenagers. The study used drawings to examine how teenagers might design their environments and these were then analysed by the research team based on a set of characteristics of cool that were drawn(More)
We used anti-correlated stimuli to compare the correspondence problem in stereo and motion. Subjects performed a two-interval forced-choice disparity/motion direction discrimination task for different displacements. For anti-correlated 1d band-pass noise, we found weak reversed depth and motion. With 2d anti-correlated stimuli, stereo performance was(More)
Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in designing for children within the context of HCI. This activity has lead to a community of researchers and practitioners seeking information on best practice on how to work with children. This course will introduce attendees to some of the pitfalls and difficulties when carrying out evaluations(More)
Stereoscopic displays have become important for many applications, including operation of remote devices, medical imaging, surgery, scientific visualization, and computer-assisted design. But the most significant and exciting development is the incorporation of stereo technology into entertainment: specifically, cinema, television, and video games. In these(More)
The paper begins with a review of some of the current literature on the use of survey methods with children. It then presents four known concerns with using survey methods for opinion gathering and reflects on how these concerns may impact on studies in Child Computer Interaction. The paper then investigates the use of survey methods in Child Computer(More)
This paper describes how the design of a novel writing interface for children was informed by requirements gathering. The derivation of a set of system requirements from observations of children using early prototypes of the interface and from modelling the system is described, and then two methods of gathering further requirements by surveying children are(More)
This paper describes a process called RAId (Rapid Analysis of design Ideas), which assists, in the ethical and inclusive analysis of large sets of design data. It is described against an activity with 120 teenagers working in small groups contributing ideas for the design of an interactive water-drinking bottle. Four investigators systematically examined(More)