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BACKGROUND Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency has been observed among populations in the northern United States. However, data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in areas of high sun exposure, such as Arizona, are limited. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to analyze serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in residents of(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the diet of healthy, free-living senior volunteers to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) and Food Guide Pyramid recommendations. METHODS This study was a cross-sectional assessment of dietary habits, as measured using a standardized food frequency questionnaire, among 1,740 healthy Southwestern U.S.(More)
Risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer among populations with evidence of precursor damage are not well described. We examined and compared risk factors associated with the development of cutaneous basal-cell (BCC) or squamous-cell (SCC) carcinoma among a group of 918 adults with significant sun damage (> or = 10 clinically assessable actinic keratoses)(More)
Background. The level of systemic inflammation as measured by circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Methods. We recruited 154 current and former smokers between 40 and 80 years of age with 25 or more pack-years of smoking history to study the(More)
Recent studies link the prostaglandin metabolic pathway to skin carcinogenesis expanding possibilities that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors may be utilized in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) chemoprevention. Using data from a study of the efficacy of retinol supplementation on incidence of NMSC, we sought to determine the role of non-steroidal(More)
Differential effects of fatty acids on carcinogenesis suggest that fatty acid composition is important in tumor development. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites elicit inflammation and promote tumor formation in mouse skin. Inhibitors of the arachidonic cascade inhibit tumor incidence. A population-based case control study in Southeastern Arizona tested(More)
Alpha-2-(Difluoromethyl)-dl-ornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, has been shown to suppress skin carcinogenesis in murine models after oral or topical administration. We designed a randomized, placebo-controlled study using a topical hydrophilic ointment formulation with or without 10% (w/w) DFMO. Forty-eight participants(More)
PURPOSE Previously, we reported the results of a Phase III, placebo-controlled trial in 2297 randomized participants with moderately severe actinic keratoses wherein 25000 IU/day vitamin A caused a 32% risk reduction in squamous cell skin cancers. We hypothesized that dose escalation of vitamin A to 50000 or 75000 IU/day would be both safe and more(More)
Retinoids have been studied extensively for their chemopreventive properties. The biological activity of retinoids is acquired through their conversion to retinoic acid (RA). Characterization of endogenous circulating RA concentrations after supplementation with vitamin A over longer time periods has not been done previously. Our investigation was conducted(More)
First-year college students were surveyed by telephone to determine their current level of tobacco use and find out what advice they had previously received from physicians regarding tobacco products. Current tobacco use reported in this 1st-year population was 19% in men and 17% in women. Although 99.6% of the students reported having had a medical visit(More)