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Infant cues, such as smiling or crying facial expressions, are powerful motivators of human maternal behavior, activating dopamine-associated brain reward circuits. Oxytocin, a neurohormone of attachment, promotes maternal care in animals, although its role in human maternal behavior is unclear. We examined 30 first-time new mothers to test whether(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined whether the magnitude of plasma oxytocin (OT), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, and blood pressure (BP) responses before and after a brief episode of warm contact (WC) with the spouse/partner may be related to the strength of perceived partner support. METHODS Subjects were 38 cohabiting couples (38 men, 38 women) aged 20 to 49 years.(More)
In animals, ventral stroking for >5 days increases oxytocin (OT) activity and decreases blood pressure (BP), but related human studies are few. Thus, relationships between self-reported frequency of partner hugs, plasma OT and BP levels were examined in 59 premenopausal women before and after warm contact with their husbands/partners ending with hugs.(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that plays a key role in mammalian female reproductive function. Animal research indicates that central oxytocin facilitates adaptive social attachments and modulates stress and anxiety responses. Major depression is prevalent among postpubertal females, and is associated with perturbations in social(More)
PURPOSE To develop a clinical perspective on bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage and an algorithm for its diagnosis and treatment. DATA IDENTIFICATION Case reports were identified through a computer search using MEDLIN (1976 to 1987), and from bibliographies in review articles (up to 1978). STUDY SELECTION Twelve reports published since 1978 were(More)
RIA for the measurement of oxytocin in human plasma is described. Extraction of oxytocin from larger peptides in plasma used acetone precipitation with a 75% +/- 2 SEM recovery of oxytocin. Nonspecific binding of the assay was less than 4%, and the minimum level of detection was 0.2 microunits/tube. No cross-reactivity was noted with neurophysins, arginine,(More)
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) enhances maternal behavior and decreases blood pressure (BP) and stress responses in animals. Thus, the relationship of OT responsivity to BP in 14 breast- and 11 bottle-feeding mothers of infants was examined. Laboratory BP was assessed during baseline, speech preparation, active speech, and recovery on 2 days, 1 in which(More)
Cardiovascular reactivity is a potential mechanism underlying associations of close relationship quality with cardiovascular disease. Two models describe oxytocin as another mechanism. The "calm and connect" model posits an association between positive relationship experiences and oxytocin levels and responses, whereas the "tend and befriend" model(More)
Basal levels of immunoreactive oxytocin (OT) were measured in plasma of healthy pregnant women using two antisera to OT, Pitt Ab-1 and Pitt Ab-2, and an antiserum to arginine vasotocin, Tor AVT Ab. The mean (+/- SEM) level of immunoreactive OT Pitt Ab-1 was significantly higher, 7.7 +/- 0.9 microU/mL, than immunoreactive OT Pitt Ab-2, 0.9 +/- 0.2 microU/mL,(More)
Synthetic oxytocin (OT) was infused iv in four men at 3 mU/min, and the rate was doubled every 90 min for a total of three infusion periods. The mean (+/- SEM) OT MCR was 16.4 +/- 1.7 ml/kg X min and was independent of the rate of infusion. A method for measuring OT in urine was developed using an octadecasilyl-silica column for extraction of the hormone.(More)