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The amino-terminal domain (ATD) of glutamate receptor ion channels, which controls their selective assembly into AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptor subtypes, is also the site of action of NMDA receptor allosteric modulators. Here we report the crystal structure of the ATD from the kainate receptor GluR6. The ATD forms dimers in solution at micromolar protein(More)
Native glutamate receptor ion channels are tetrameric assemblies containing two or more different subunits. NMDA receptors are obligate heteromers formed by coassembly of two or three divergent gene families. While some AMPA and kainate receptors can form functional homomeric ion channels, the KA1 and KA2 subunits are obligate heteromers which function only(More)
Glutamate receptor ion channels (iGluRs) are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors with a unique molecular architecture in which the extracellular domains assemble as a dimer of dimers. The structure of individual dimer assemblies has been established previously for both the isolated ligand-binding domain (LBD) and more recently for the larger amino(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The selective assembly of iGluRs into AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subtypes is regulated by their extracellular amino-terminal domains (ATDs). Kainate receptors are further classified into(More)
The SMc01113/YbeY protein, belonging to the UPF0054 family, is highly conserved in nearly every bacterium. However, the function of these proteins still remains elusive. Our results show that SMc01113/YbeY proteins share structural similarities with the MID domain of the Argonaute (AGO) proteins, and might similarly bind to a small-RNA (sRNA) seed, making a(More)
X-ray crystal structures for the soluble amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains of glutamate receptor ion channels, combined with a 3.6-Å-resolution structure of the full-length AMPA receptor GluA2 homotetramer, provide unique insights into the mechanisms of the assembly and function of glutamate receptor ion channels. Increasingly sophisticated(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To gain a better understanding of how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped rat AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate receptor subtypes in their major functional(More)
Kainate receptors (KARs) play a key role in the regulation of synaptic networks. Here, we show that zinc, a cation released at a subset of glutamatergic synapses, potentiates glutamate currents mediated by homomeric and heteromeric KARs containing GluK3 at 10-100 μM concentrations, whereas it inhibits other KAR subtypes. Potentiation of GluK3 currents is(More)
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy were used to measure the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for formation of dimers by the amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of the GluA2 and GluA3 subtypes of AMPA receptor. Previous reports on GluA2 dimerization differed in their estimate of the monomer-dimer Kd by a 2,400-fold(More)
Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate(More)