Learn More
To model the effects of estrogen on adaptive immunity in the brain, we examined the effects of 17beta-estradiol on microglial parameters related to antigen presentation and T cell activation. Specifically, the effects of 17beta-estradiol on basal and LPS-induced surface staining of Class I and II MHC, as well as CD40, CD80, CD86, CD152, CD28, CD8, CD11b,(More)
Opiates exacerbate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat(1-72)-induced release of key proinflammatory cytokines by astrocytes, which may accelerate HIV neuropathogenesis in opiate abusers. The release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), in particular, is potentiated by opiate-HIV Tat interactions in vitro. Although(More)
As epidemiological data have suggested that female patients may have improved clinical prognoses following traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to males, we designed experiments to determine the role of gender and estrogen in TBI-induced brain injury and inflammation in rodents. To this end, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were separated into the following(More)
Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that estrogen can be protective in both brain injury and infection. While estrogens can act directly on neurons to promote neuronal survival, estrogen also has antiinflammatory properties that may contribute to overall neuroprotection. Accordingly, estrogens may have particular relevance in chronic neuroimmune(More)
During inflammation, microglial cells go through phenotypic and functional changes that include the production and release of large amounts of oxygen and nitrogen radicals. As such, activated microglia are subject to heightened oxidative stress. The multicatalytic proteasome clears oxidized and damaged proteins from cells, and has been shown to be an(More)
  • 1