Jane Witbrodt

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BACKGROUND While prior studies have reported racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems at a given level of heavy drinking (HD), particularly lower levels, it is unclear whether these occur in both genders and are an artifact of racial/ethnic differences in drink alcohol content. Such information is important to understanding disparities and(More)
This clinical trial compared two brief alcohol use interventions in prenatal clinics: Early Start (ES), a substance-abuse screening and treatment program integrated with prenatal care focused on abstention (n=298), and Early Start Plus (ESP), adding a computerized drink-size assessment tool and intervention focused on drinking less (n=266). Controls were(More)
Most treatment programs recommend clients attend 12-step groups, but many drop out posttreatment. The effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] Easier (MAAEZ ), a manual-guided intervention designed to help clients connect with individuals encountered in AA, was tested using an "OFF/ON" design (n = 508). MAAEZ effectiveness was determined by(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to estimate the outcomes and costs of day hospital and nonmedical community-based day treatment for chemical dependency. METHOD A community sample of 271 adults (179 men) dependent on alcohol and/or drugs was recruited and randomized to either a hospital-based (medical) day treatment program or to a community-based(More)
OBJECTIVE Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of(More)
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. DESIGN AND METHODS Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the 6 h before a violence-related injury in(More)
Previous studies that have examined the effects of specific aspects of 12-step participation and social network composition on abstinence have focused mostly on alcohol-related outcomes and have screened out drug dependent persons. This article explores whether these predictors differentially affect abstinence based on DSM-III-R substance dependence(More)
This study grouped treatment-seeking individuals (n = 1825) by common patterns of 12-step attendance using 5 waves of data (75% interviewed Year 9) to isolate unique characteristics and use-related outcomes distinguishing each class profile. The "high" class reported the highest attendance and abstention. The "descending" class reported high baseline(More)
This study adds to a growing literature showing that definitions for "standard drinks" are often difficult to conceptualize and that people often underestimate their actual drink sizes. As part of an intervention aimed at reducing negative neonatal and maternal outcomes, insured at-risk women were asked to identify the vessels from which they drank each of(More)
This chapter draws on AA membership surveys, US general population surveys, and longitudinal treatment data to compile profiles of those ever exposed to AA in their lifetime, those who no longer report AA meeting attendance, and those who attend AA meetings currently. We consider demographics (gender, age, ethnicity, marital status), receipt of specialty(More)