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Although breast cancer screening has been shown to work in randomised trials, there is a need to evaluate service screening programmes to ensure that they are delivering the benefit indicated by the trials. We carried out a case-control study to investigate the effect of mammography service screening, in the NHS breast screening programme, on breast cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Although mammographic breast density is associated with the risk of breast cancer and is influenced by hormone levels, the effects of tamoxifen on breast density in healthy women and whether tamoxifen-induced density changes are associated with breast cancer risk are unclear. We investigated mammographic breast density in healthy women with an(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of service screening, as provided by the NHS breast screening programme, on breast cancer mortality in Wales. Furthermore, we wished to ascertain whether a reduction in breast cancer mortality consistent with that observed in the randomised screening trials was being achieved. SETTING The NHS(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular profiling has identified at least four subtypes of invasive breast carcinoma, which exhibit distinct clinical behaviour. There is good evidence now that DCIS represents the non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancer and therefore it should be possible to identify similar molecular subtypes at this stage. In addition to a limited(More)
Randomised controlled trials have shown that the policy of mammographic screening confers a substantial and significant reduction in breast cancer mortality. This has often been accompanied, however, by an increase in breast cancer incidence, particularly during the early years of a screening programme, which has led to concerns about overdiagnosis, that is(More)
The aim of this study is to determine breast cancer risk at mammographic screening episodes and integrate standard risk factors with mammographic density and genetic data to assess changing the screening interval based on risk and offer women at high risk preventive strategies. We report our experience of assessing breast cancer risk within the U.K.(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of screening with stool DNA testing with that of screening with other tools (annual fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, and colonoscopy every 10 years) or not screening at all. METHODS We developed a Markov model to evaluate the above screening strategies(More)
BACKGROUND Integrin αvβ6 promotes migration, invasion, and survival of cancer cells; however, the relevance and role of αvβ6 has yet to be elucidated in breast cancer. METHODS Protein expression of integrin subunit beta6 (β6) was measured in breast cancers by immunohistochemistry (n > 2000) and ITGB6 mRNA expression measured in the Molecular Taxonomy of(More)
INTRODUCTION Mammographic density is known to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer. A particularly strong association with risk has been observed when density is measured using interactive threshold software. This, however, is a labour-intensive process for large-scale studies. METHODS Our aim was to determine the performance of visually assessed(More)
Mammographic density is well-established as a risk factor for breast cancer, however, adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) is vital to its clinical interpretation when assessing individual risk. In this paper we develop a model to adjust mammographic density for age and BMI and show how this adjusted mammographic density measure might be used with(More)