Jane W. Marsh

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BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile are a source of hospital-associated (HA) infections. Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) is a highly discriminatory molecular subtyping tool that helps to determine possible transmission sources. METHODS Clostridium difficile(More)
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal illness. Recently, an increased incidence of hospital-acquired infections with severe outcomes has been reported in North America and Europe. Current molecular-typing methods for detection of outbreaks and nosocomial transmission are labor-intensive, subjective, or(More)
Severe Clostridium difficile associated disease is associated with outbreaks of the recently described BI/NAP1 epidemic clone. This clone is characterized by an 18-bp deletion in the tcdC gene and increased production of toxins A and B in vitro. TcdC is a putative negative regulator of toxin A&B production. We characterized tcdC genotypes from a collection(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of serogroup C and Y meningococcal disease increased in the United States during the 1990s. The cyclical nature of endemic meningococcal disease remains unexplained. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms associated with the increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease. METHODS We characterized an(More)
Salmonella enterica bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, partly as a result of genes carried on integrons. Clonal expansion and horizontal gene transfer may contribute to the spread of antimicrobial drug-resistance integrons in these organisms. We investigated this resistance and integron carriage among 90 isolates with the(More)
Salmonella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on their prevalence in Africa. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi and S. enterica serotype Typhimurium strains have been noted in South Africa since 2001. A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Salmonella spp.(More)
BACKGROUND In June 2000, the hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile (CD) infection rate in our hospital (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-Presbyterian, Pittsburgh, PA) increased to 10.4 infections per 1000 hospital discharges (HDs); the annual rate increased from 2.7 infections per 1000 HDs to 7.2 infections per 1000 HDs and was accompanied by an(More)
BACKGROUND Rifampin is used as adjunctive therapy for Clostridium difficile-associated disease, and the drug's derivative, rifaximin, has emerged as an attractive antimicrobial for treatment of C. difficile-associated disease. Rifampin resistance in C. difficile strains has been reported to be uncommon. METHODS We examined the prevalence of rifampin(More)
The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. cause worldwide problems in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Budapest, Hungary and to determine the risk factors of the(More)
BACKGROUND A quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) was licensed in the United States in 2005; no serogroup B vaccine is available. Neisseria meningitidis changes its capsular phenotype through capsular switching, which has implications for vaccines that do not protect against all serogroups. METHODS Meningococcal isolates from 10 Active(More)