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A major rate-limiting step in the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is the release of active renin from endocrine cells (juxtaglomerular (JG) cells) in the media layer of the afferent glomerular arterioles. The number and distribution of JG cells vary with age and the physiological level of stimulation; fetal life and chronic stimulation by extracellular(More)
The renin–angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium intake, but the specific pathways involved and the relations(More)
Proteinuria and increased renal reabsorption of NaCl characterize the nephrotic syndrome. Here, we show that protein-rich urine from nephrotic rats and from patients with nephrotic syndrome activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cultured M-1 mouse collecting duct cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing ENaC. The activation(More)
Gitelman’s syndrome (GS) is a variant of classical Bartter’s syndrome (BS) in adults characterized by hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria (daily excretion -2.0 mgukg body weight), hypomagnesaemia (-1.5 mgudl), together with a normal to low blood pressure w1x. In 1996, Simon et al. w2x reported complete linkage between the syndrome and the(More)
OBJECTIVE Arterial injury stimulates remodeling responses that, when excessive, lead to stenosis. These responses are influenced by integrin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an integrin ligand localized to extracellular matrix fibers in the vascular wall. The role of MFAP4 in vascular biology(More)
BACKGROUND Although the dominant product of vascular Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostacyclin (PGI(2)), restrains atherogenesis, inhibition and deletion of COX-2 have yielded conflicting results in mouse models of atherosclerosis. Floxed mice were used to parse distinct cellular contributions of COX-2 in macrophages and T cells (TCs) to atherogenesis. (More)
The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1-dependent formation of PGD₂ and PGE₂ followed by COX-2-dependent production of PGE₂. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined(More)
In postnatal weeks 2-4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in the rat kidney cortex where it is critically involved in final stages of kidney development. We examined whether changes in circulating gluco- or mineralocorticosteroids or in their renal receptors regulate postnatal COX-2 induction. Plasma corticosterone concentration peaked at birth, decreased(More)
Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus. Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a(More)