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Although previous research has emphasized the beneficial effects of dopamine (DA) on functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), recent studies of animals exposed to mild stress indicate that excessive DA receptor stimulation may be detrimental to the spatial working memory functions of the PFC (Arnsten and Goldman-Rakic, 1990; Murphy et al., 1994, 1996a,b,(More)
Drug abuse and dependence define behavioral states involving increased allocation of behavior towards drug seeking and taking at the expense of more appropriate behavioral patterns. As such, addiction can be viewed as increased control of behavior by the desired drug (due to its unconditioned, rewarding properties). It is also clear that drug-associated(More)
OBJECTIVE Epidemiological studies indicate that experimentation with addictive drugs and onset of addictive disorders is primarily concentrated in adolescence and young adulthood. The authors describe basic and clinical data supporting adolescent neurodevelopment as a biologically critical period of greater vulnerability for experimentation with substances(More)
Stimulant drugs have been shown to enhance the control over behaviour exerted by stimuli previously correlated with primary reinforcers, termed conditioned reinforcers (CR). Experiment 1 examined the possible neuroanatomical specificity of the enhancement of conditioned reinforcement following intracerebral injections ofd-amphetamine. Thirsty rats were(More)
Cocaine enhances dopamine-mediated neurotransmission by blocking dopamine re-uptake at axon terminals. Most dopamine-containing nerve terminals innervate medium spiny neurons in the striatum of the brain. Cocaine addiction is thought to stem, in part, from neural adaptations that act to maintain equilibrium by countering the effects of repeated drug(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated phosphorylation of neurotrophin-regulated transcription factors, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB), in the hippocampus has been proposed as a common mediator of antidepressant (ADT) efficacy in otherwise naive rodents. The intracellular factors by which ADTs and glucocorticoids, causal(More)
Memory reconsolidation has been argued to be a distinct process that serves to maintain, strengthen or modify memories. Specifically, the retrieval of a previously consolidated memory has been hypothesized to induce an additional activity-dependent labile period during which the memory can be modified. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of(More)
Intra-accumbens d-amphetamine enhances responding for reward-related stimuli (conditioned reinforcers, CRs), whereas intra-caudate d-amphetamine has only weak and variable effects (Taylor and Robbins 1984). The present experiment further examined the involvement of the nucleus accumbens and the role of dopamine (DA) in this effect. Thirsty rats were trained(More)
Female and male brains differ. Differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual. Although researchers from a myriad of disciplines are beginning to appreciate the importance of considering sex differences in the design and interpretation of their studies,(More)
The effects of the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine on the neurochemistry and function of the prefrontal cortex in vervet monkeys were investigated. Monkeys treated with phencyclidine twice a day for 14 days displayed performance deficits on a task that was sensitive to prefrontal cortex function; the deficits were ameliorated by the atypical(More)