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The effect of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis on definite wound infections was assessed for 3202 herniorrhaphies or selected breast surgery procedures. Patients were identified preoperatively and monitored for greater than or equal to 4 weeks. Thirty-four percent of patients (1077/3202) received prophylaxis at the discretion of the surgeon; 86 definite(More)
IMPORTANCE Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia in children. In March 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced to the routine childhood immunization schedule. The PCV13 contains 6 serotypes not included in the previously recommended 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate(More)
Plasmodium falciparum infection is an important cause of the high childhood mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasingly, the contribution of P. falciparum-associated severe anemia to pediatric mortality is being recognized while the impact of chloroquine resistance on mortality has not been evaluated. To address the issues of pediatric mortality,(More)
The effectiveness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis against wound infections following breast surgery was investigated by meta-analysis of published data from a randomized clinical trial and an observational data set, which included a total of 2587 surgical procedures, including excisional biopsy, lumpectomy, mastectomy, reduction mammoplasty and(More)
Potential indicators were assessed for the two classifications of protein-energy malnutrition in the guidelines for integrated management of childhood illness: severe malnutrition, which requires immediate referral to hospital, and very low weight, which calls for feeding assessment, nutritional counselling and follow-up. Children aged < 2 years require(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of transfusion on hematologic recovery and mortality among severely anemic children during and after hospitalization in rural Kenya. DESIGN Prospective cohort. METHODS We collected clinical and laboratory information on all severely anemic children (hemoglobin < 5.0 g/dl) and a 33% sample of children with hemoglobin <(More)
In 1993, the World Health Organization completed the development of a draft algorithm for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI), which deals with acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, ear infections, malnutrition, and immunization status. The present study compares the performance of a minimally trained health worker to(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION Malaria is caused by infection with one of four species of Plasmodium (i.e., P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae ), which are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles sp. mosquito. Most malarial infections in the United States occur in persons who have traveled to areas (i.e., other countries) in which(More)
Three recent outbreaks of locally acquired malaria in densely populated areas of the United States demonstrate the continued risk for mosquitoborne transmission of this disease. Increased global travel, immigration, and the presence of competent anopheline vectors throughout the continental United States contribute to the ongoing threat of malaria(More)
CONTEXT Immunizations are the most effective way to reduce incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunization information systems (IISs) are confidential, population-based, computerized databases that record all vaccination doses administered by participating providers to people residing within a given geopolitical area. They facilitate consolidation(More)