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The electroencephalogram (EEG) of nine healthy individuals was recorded at half-hourly intervals during approximately 40 h of sustained wakefulness in a constant routine protocol. EEG power density in the 0.75-9.0 Hz range exhibited a global increasing trend, and a local trough in the evening, centered approximately 6 h prior to the temperature minimum. The(More)
The influence of the circadian pacemaker and of the duration of time awake on the electroencephalogram (EEG) was investigated in 19 humans during approximately 40 h of sustained wakefulness. Two circadian rhythms in spectral power density were educed. The first rhythm was centered in the theta band (4.25-8.0 Hz) and exhibited a minimum approximately 1 h(More)
BACKGROUND Although hypotheses about the therapeutic mechanism of action of light therapy have focused on serotonergic mechanisms, the potential role, if any, of catecholaminergic pathways has not been fully explored. METHODS Sixteen patients with seasonal affective disorder who had responded to a standard regimen of daily 10000-lux light therapy were(More)
BACKGROUND Visual and olfactory pathways are interconnected. Olfactory deafferentation unmasks photoperiodic responsiveness in some nonphotoperiodic animals such as laboratory rats. By analogy, we hypothesized that olfactory deficits may unmask seasonal rhythms in certain individuals, namely those with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Since previous(More)
We used the waking electroencephalogram to study the homeostatic sleep regulatory process in human short sleepers and long sleepers. After sleeping according to their habitual schedule, nine short sleepers (sleep duration < 6 h) and eight long sleepers (> 9 h) were recorded half-hourly during approximately 40 h of wakefulness in a constant routine protocol.(More)
Neural networks can be used as a tool in the explanation of neuropsychological data. Using the Hebbian Learning Rule and other such principles as competition and modifiable interlevel feedback, researchers have successfully modeled a widely used neuropsychological test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. One of these models is reviewed here and extended to a(More)
A large-diameter indwelling subcutaneous right-atrial catheter was inserted in 25 patients with haematological malignancies and neutropenia to provide ready access to the venous system for all infusions and blood aspirations. The median duration of catheter placement was 70 days. In 23 patients (92%) the catheter was used successfully until remission or(More)
Nineteen adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated with combination chemotherapy to induce remission in the period from 1971 to 1979. Those patients achieving remission received intensive post-remission therapy with central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis, followed by two-drug maintenance therapy, and reinduction courses of chemotherapy(More)
The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently activated in human cancers. Interestingly, STAT3 also maintains the pluripotency and self-renewal of murine embryonic stem cells, and several tissue stem cell types. To investigate whether STAT3 also maintains the small-intestine crypt stem cell, we(More)
BACKGROUND Information-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins have been implicated previously in the mechanism of action of mood stabilizers and in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Mononuclear leukocytes of patients with unipolar and bipolar depression have been characterized by reduced measures of the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins. In this(More)