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1. Postural reactions were studied in six cats subjected to small, linear translations of the supporting surface in each of 16 different directions in the horizontal plane. Directions were specified in a polar coordinate system, with posterior translations being 0 degrees and leftward translations, 90 degrees. The data consisted of the forces exerted by(More)
Recently developed computational techniques have been used to reduce muscle activation patterns of high complexity to a simple synergy organization and to bring new insights to the long-standing degrees of freedom problem in motor control. We used a nonnegative factorization approach to identify muscle synergies during postural responses in the cat and to(More)
1. This study tested the hypothesis that muscle synergies underlie the invariance in the direction of corrective forces observed following stance perturbations in the horizontal plane. Electromyographic activity was recorded from selected forelimb and hindlimb muscles of cats subjected to horizontal translations of the supporting surface in 16 different(More)
We recently showed that four muscle synergies can reproduce multiple muscle activation patterns in cats during postural responses to support surface translations. We now test the robustness of functional muscle synergies, which specify muscle groupings and the active force vectors produced during postural responses under several biomechanically distinct(More)
1. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of changing initial stance conditions on the postural response of the cat to horizontal plane translations of the support surface. Cats were trained to stand, unrestrained, on a moveable force platform. The platform was translated linearly in each of 16 directions in the horizontal plane, with a(More)
The supplementary motor area of three Macaca fascicularis was mapped using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Both forelimb and hindlimb movements were evoked using currents of 30 microA or less. However, thresholds for evoking movements were higher than those in the primary motor cortex. Proximal motor effects predominated, but distal joint movements(More)
The intact cat maintains balance during unexpected disturbances of stance through automatic postural responses that are stereotyped and rapid. The extent to which the chronic spinal cat can maintain balance during stance is unclear, and there have been no quantitative studies that examined this question directly. This study examined whether the isolated(More)
1. This study examined the relation between electromyographic (EMG) activation and the contact force and joint torques of the left hindlimb during postural equilibrium tasks in the standing cat. It is the appropriate application of force by the limbs against the support surface that allows the animal to control its center of mass and maintain equilibrium.(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bilateral labyrinthectomy on quiet stance in the freely-standing cat. Since loss of the vestibular end organs produces marked deficits in motor behaviour, including ataxia and problems with balance, we hypothesized that labyrinthectomized animals would show impairment in quantitative measures of stance.(More)