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Astrocytes infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) produce only minimal quantities of virus. The molecular events that limit acute-phase HIV-1 infection of astrocytes were examined after inducing acute-phase replication by transfection with the pNL4-3 proviral plasmid. The levels of HIV-1 mRNA were similarly high in both astrocytes and(More)
A small percentage of astrocytes are consistently infected in vivo by HIV-1 and may contribute to neuropathogenesis despite a non-productive infection. Overexpression of the nef gene product has been associated with their infection both in vivo and in vitro. We examined the role of the nef gene during HIV replication in astrocytes (U251MG cells) following(More)
BACKGROUND Macrophages are important targets and long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1, which are not cleared of infection by currently available treatments. In the primary monocyte-derived macrophage model of infection, replication is initially productive followed by a decline in virion output over ensuing weeks, coincident with a decrease in the levels of the(More)
Escape mutant (EM) virus that evades CD8+ T cell recognition is frequently observed following infection with HIV-1 or SIV. This EM virus is often less replicatively "fit" compared to wild-type (WT) virus, as demonstrated by reversion to WT upon transmission of HIV to a naïve host and the association of EM virus with lower viral load in vivo in HIV-1(More)
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