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To generate a stable resource from which high affinity human antibodies to any given antigen can be rapidly isolated, functional V-gene segments from 43 non-immunized human donors were used to construct a repertoire of 1.4 x 10(10) single-chain Fv (scFv) fragments displayed on the surface of phage. Fragments were cloned in a phagemid vector, enabling both(More)
We have cloned and sequenced a 1.9 kb fragment of the 5'-upstream sequence of the smooth-muscle-specific gene SM22 alpha. The region cloned consisted of the SM22 alpha promoter, a 65 bp exon containing most of the 5'-untranslated region and 307 bp of the first intron. A 1.5 kb fragment at the 5' end of this sequence was able to drive the expression of a(More)
Transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) which express tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) U1 strain coat protein (CP) can complement both the assembly and the long-distance spread of CP-defective (DT1) or coat proteinless (DT1G) mutants of TMV. Both mutants arose spontaneously from PM2 and exist only as unencapsidated RNA in the inoculated leaves of(More)
BACKGROUND A human single chain Fv (scFv) specific for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been isolated from a 2.0 x 10(9) phage display library from unimmunised human donors. The dissociation constant of the scFv has been measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and found to be 7.7 x 10(-9) M, with an off-rate component of 6.2 x 10(-3) s-1. In(More)
The aquaporins are a rapidly expanding family of highly conserved proteins which function as transmembrane water channels. We have previously shown that the gene for aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) is expressed in rat, aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) implying a specific role for AQP-1 in vascular function. In this study we set out to document the expression(More)
HIV-1 entry into cells is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein receptor-binding (gp120) and membrane fusion-promoting (gp41) subunits. The gp41 heptad repeat 1 (HR1) domain is the molecular target of the fusion-inhibitor drug enfuvirtide (T20). The HR1 sequence is highly conserved and therefore considered an attractive target for vaccine development, but(More)
Using differential cDNA screening, we demonstrated that the bone-associated glycoprotein osteoglycin was highly expressed in differentiated adult rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) but downregulated in VSMCs that had undergone proliferation in vitro. Further experiments in vitro revealed that osteoglycin gene expression was downregulated by a number(More)
Guided selection is a method of producing a human version of a rodent or any other non-human antibody. The process is a serial transition from rodent to human via rodent-human chimaerics, through to a panel of human antibodies with similar characteristics to those of the starting rodent antibody. The guided selection process can be undertaken using either(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have long been considered a good class of natural drugs, both because they mimic their natural role in the body and because they have no inherent toxicity. Although rodent Mabs are readily generated, their widespread use as therapeutic agents has been hampered because they are recognized as foreign by the patient. Evidently,(More)
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-like pseudovirus particles containing mRNA for Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were electroporated into mesophyll protoplasts from control or TMV coat protein (CP)-transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). GUS-particles were expressed 100-fold less efficiently in CP-transformed than in control protoplasts(More)