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Nutritional deprivation suppresses immune function. The cloning of the obese gene and identification of its protein product leptin has provided fundamental insight into the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Circulating levels of this adipocyte-derived hormone are proportional to fat mass but maybe lowered rapidly by fasting or increased by(More)
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that regulates energy balance and neuroendocrine function primarily by acting on specific hypothalamic pathways. Resistance to the weight reducing effects of leptin is a feature of most cases of human and rodent obesity, yet the molecular basis of leptin resistance is poorly understood. We have previously identified(More)
Pelvic endometriosis is an immune-related chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by ectopic implants of endometrium in the peritoneal cavity and associated with increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and neoangiogenesis. Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone, has been shown to have a role in food intake, basal metabolism, and reproductive(More)
Thymic atrophy is a prominent feature of malnutrition. Forty-eight hours' starvation of normal mice reduced the total thymocyte count to 13% of that observed in freely fed controls, predominantly because of a diminution in the cortical CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocyte subpopulation. Prevention of the fasting-induced fall in the level of the adipocyte-derived hormone(More)
There are now six recognized neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor subtypes (Y1-Y4 and two recently cloned distinct receptors labeled Y5), of which Y1 and one of the Y5's have been suggested could mediate the effect of NPY on feeding. The fragments NPY(2-36) and NPY(3-36), which bind Y1 only poorly, were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) and found to have(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (Socs-3) negatively regulates the action of various cytokines, as well as the metabolic hormones leptin and insulin. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Socs-3, or those with neuronal deletion of Socs-3, are lean and more leptin and insulin sensitive. To examine the role of Socs-3 within specific neurons critical to energy(More)
Macrophage recruitment to adipose tissue in obesity contributes to enhanced adipose tissue inflammatory activity and thus may underlie obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. Obese adipose tissue exhibits increases in CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), an important macrophage-recruiting factor. We therefore hypothesized(More)
BACKGROUND Several large, randomized trials established the benefits of adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy. However, the benefit for women with small, node-negative HER2-positive (HER2+) disease is unknown, as these patients were largely excluded from these trials. Therefore, a retrospective, single-institution, sequential cohort study of women with(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) may be defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year of giving birth. Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of pregnancy on clinical features and prognosis of breast cancer. METHODS A single-institution retrospective chart review was performed of 99 patients identified with(More)
Recent evidence indicates that leptin modifies T cell immunity, and may provide a key link between nutritional deficiency and immune dysfunction. To study the influence of leptin on autoimmunity, susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by immunization with a myelin-derived peptide was examined in leptin-deficient, C57BL/6J-ob/ob(More)