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OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy which combines elements of warm water immersion and exercise. It was predicted that hydrotherapy would result in a greater therapeutic benefit than either of these components separately. METHODS One hundred thirty-nine patients with chronic rheumatoid arthritis were(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy and water immersion on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum and urine levels of cortisol were compared in untreated RA patients, NSAID-treated RA(More)
Using a combination of soil, land use and geological information, a map of Great Britain has been derived which indicates the sensitivity of surface waters to acidification. For the geological information, a slightly modified version of an available map was used which indicated the sensitivity of groundwaters to acidification. For soils, 1-km databases of(More)
A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global.(More)
Our recent observations (1) that there is a difference in circadian patterns of plasma cortisol levels between male and female macaques and (2) that after gonadectomy these differences in the patterns and in the levels of cortisol were reduced prompted us to investigate how 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone affect cortisol secretion in orchidectomized(More)
Attention and pain are linked inexorably. The manipulation of attention, via either distraction or focused attention, has been used as a therapeutic initiative for generations. Imaging evidence and clinical observations demonstrate that attention can be altered with associated changes at the cortical level and this may have positive or negative effects on(More)
The somatosensory system is an integral component of the motor control system that facilitates the recognition of location and experience of peripheral stimuli, as well as body part position and differentiation. In chronic pain, this system may be disrupted by alterations in peripheral and cortical processing. Clinical symptoms that accompany such changes(More)
BACKGROUND Visual disturbance, visuo-spatial difficulties, and exacerbations of pain associated with these, have been reported by some patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). AIMS We investigated the hypothesis that some visual stimuli (i.e. those which produce ambiguous perceptions) can induce pain and other somatic sensations in people with(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrotherapy is popular with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its efficacy as an aerobic conditioning aid is equivocal. Patients with RA have reduced muscle strength and may be unable to achieve a walking speed commensurate with an aerobic training effect because the resistance to movement increases with speed in water. The(More)
This study compared the cardiorespiratory responses of eight healthy women (mean age 30.25 years) to submaximal exercise on land (LTm) and water treadmills (WTm) in chest-deep water (Aquaciser). In addition, the effects of two different water temperatures were examined (28 and 36 degrees C). Each exercise test consisted of three consecutive 5-min bouts at(More)