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As an increasing number of field studies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have achieved long-term status across Africa, differences in the behavioural repertoires described have become apparent that suggest there is significant cultural variation. Here we present a systematic synthesis of this information from the seven most long-term studies, which(More)
Hypotheses about chimpanzee social behavior, phylogeography, and evolution were evaluated by noninvasive genotyping of free-ranging individuals from 20 African sites. Degrees of relatedness among individuals in one community were inferred from allele-sharing at eight nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Males are related on the order of half-siblings,(More)
Competitive interaction between females of same social group is characteristic of most primate species. In Old World monkeys, females of high social rank maintain priority of access to scarce resources and harass low-ranking companions. But different field studies have found differing correlations between female dominance and reproductive success: several(More)
Female chimpanzees often forage alone and do not display obvious linear dominance hierarchies; consequently, it has been suggested that dominance is not of great importance to them. However, with the use of data from a 35-year field study of chimpanzees, high-ranking females were shown to have significantly higher infant survival, faster maturing daughters,(More)
Human menopause is remarkable in that reproductive senescence is markedly accelerated relative to somatic aging, leaving an extended postreproductive period for a large proportion of women. Functional explanations for this are debated, in part because comparative data from closely related species are inadequate. Existing studies of chimpanzees are based on(More)
The controls that enable melanoblasts and melanoma cells to proliferate are likely to be related, but so far no key regulator of cell cycle progression specific to the melanocyte lineage has been identified. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Mitf has a crucial but poorly defined role in melanoblast and melanocyte survival and in(More)
Coalitionary aggression occurs when at least two individuals jointly direct aggression at one or more conspecific targets. Scientists have long argued that this common form of cooperation has positive fitness consequences. Nevertheless, despite evidence that social bond strength (which is thought to promote coalition formation) is correlated with fitness in(More)
The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most(More)
• Introduction A1 • International development of ethics support A2 • Functions of clinical ethics committees A6 • Scope of work undertaken by clinical ethics committees A8 • Different models of clinical ethics support A9 • A guide to setting up clinical ethics support in your trust A12 • Reading A20 • Appendix A1: A first hand account of the experience of(More)