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Hypotheses about chimpanzee social behavior, phylogeography, and evolution were evaluated by noninvasive genotyping of free-ranging individuals from 20 African sites. Degrees of relatedness among individuals in one community were inferred from allele-sharing at eight nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Males are related on the order of half-siblings,(More)
The relative success of chimpanzee male mating strategies, the role of male dominance rank and the success of inbreeding avoidance behaviour can only be assessed when paternities are known. We report the probable paternities of 14 chimpanzees included in a long-term behavioural study of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park,(More)
As an increasing number of field studies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have achieved long-term status across Africa, differences in the behavioural repertoires described have become apparent that suggest there is significant cultural variation. Here we present a systematic synthesis of this information from the seven most long-term studies, which(More)
Female chimpanzees often forage alone and do not display obvious linear dominance hierarchies; consequently, it has been suggested that dominance is not of great importance to them. However, with the use of data from a 35-year field study of chimpanzees, high-ranking females were shown to have significantly higher infant survival, faster maturing daughters,(More)
In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females(More)
The chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Gombe National Park, Tanzania, were weighed regularly over a period of 33 yr, resulting in 1286 measurements on 31 males and 26 females aged 2–43 yr. Female growth slowed at 10 yr and that of males at 13 yr. Median adult body mass is 39 kg for males and 31.3 kg for females. Body mass varied between years.(More)
Predatory patterns in wild chimpanzees are important evidence in the continuing debate about the role of hunting in the behavior of early hominids. Data are presented on the predator-prey ecology of red colobus monkeys Colobus badius tephrosceles) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, from 1982 through 1991.(More)
Competitive interaction between females of same social group is characteristic of most primate species. In Old World monkeys, females of high social rank maintain priority of access to scarce resources and harass low-ranking companions. But different field studies have found differing correlations between female dominance and reproductive success: several(More)
Human menopause is remarkable in that reproductive senescence is markedly accelerated relative to somatic aging, leaving an extended postreproductive period for a large proportion of women. Functional explanations for this are debated, in part because comparative data from closely related species are inadequate. Existing studies of chimpanzees are based on(More)