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The genome of the japonica subspecies of rice, an important cereal and model monocot, was sequenced and assembled by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled sequence covers 93% of the 420-megabase genome. Gene predictions on the assembled sequence suggest that the genome contains 32,000 to 50,000 genes. Homologs of 98% of the known maize, wheat, and(More)
To discover which components of plant defense responses make significant contributions to limiting pathogen attack, we screened a mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana for individuals that exhibit increased susceptibility to the moderately virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 (Psm ES4326). The 12 enhanced disease(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene controls the onset of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a plant immunity, to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is normally established after a primary exposure to avirulent pathogens. Mutants with defects in NPR1 fail to respond to various SAR-inducing treatments, displaying little expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes(More)
The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene previously was found to be required for expression of multiple defense responses including camalexin synthesis and PR-1 gene expression in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. This report describes the isolation of PAD4. The predicted PAD4 protein sequence displays similarity to(More)
Numerous studies have shown that transcription factors are important in regulating plant responses to environmental stress. However, specific functions for most of the genes encoding transcription factors are unclear. In this study, we used mRNA profiles generated from microarray experiments to deduce the functions of genes encoding known and putative(More)
Plants possess inducible systemic defense responses when locally infected by pathogens. Bacterial infection results in the increased accumulation of the mobile metabolite azelaic acid, a nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid, in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis that confers local and systemic resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Azelaic acid primes(More)
Phytoalexins are low molecular weight antimicrobial compounds that are synthesized in response to pathogen attack. The phytoalexin camalexin, an indole derivative, is produced by Arabidopsis in response to infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The phytoalexin deficient 3 (pad3) mutation, which causes a defect in camalexin production,(More)
We performed large-scale mRNA expression profiling using an Affymetrix GeneChip to study Arabidopsis responses to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The interactions were compatible (virulent bacteria) or incompatible (avirulent bacteria), including a nonhost interaction and interactions mediated by two different avirulence gene-resistance (R)(More)
Two modes of plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens, Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), are triggered by recognition of pathogen effectors and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), respectively. Although the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling sectors are generally(More)
Salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense responses are important factors during effector triggered immunity and microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-induced immunity in plants. This article presents evidence that a member of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, CBP60g, contributes to MAMP-triggered SA accumulation. CBP60g is inducible by both pathogen and(More)