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BACKGROUND In 1998, folic acid fortification of a large variety of cereal products became mandatory in Canada, a country where the prevalence of neural-tube defects was historically higher in the eastern provinces than in the western provinces. We assessed changes in the prevalence of neural-tube defects in Canada before and after food fortification with(More)
RATIONALE Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological human dental enamel is widely used as a proxy for the drinking water composition (δ(18)O(DW)) of the individual and thus can be used as an indicator of their childhood place of origin. In this paper we demonstrate the robustness of structural carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ(18)O(C)) in bioapatite to(More)
Limb deficiency defects (LD) occurring among 1,575,904 births in Hungary during 1975-1984 were reviewed. The overall birth prevalence of LD was 1 in 1,816. This paper discusses the nature and distribution of the limb and other defects in the 275 (32%) children who had structural malformations in other systems. Two main forms of classification were used:(More)
This paper presents the results of an isotopic investigation of population and dietary diversity in Roman Gloucester, focusing on individuals found in a late 2nd century AD mass burial pit at London Road, and comparing them to those found in the nearby cemetery. There were no statistical differences in isotopic composition between mass grave and cemetery(More)
Rib anomalies may occur in isolation, as well as in association with abnormalities of vertebral segmentation and multi-system malformations. Specific entities include the VACTERL and MURCS associations, spondylocostal dysostosis, and spondylothoracic dysostosis. The relative significance of rib anomalies in other lesser known syndromes and associations(More)
We describe five new cases of tracheal agenesis and report on epidemiological and numerical analyses of nearly 100 such cases with multiple congenital anomalies. Malformations seen with tracheal agenesis form patterns which overlap with, but are distinct from, VACTERL association. They have a high frequency of other lower respiratory tract anomalies; e.g.,(More)
Chronic stress has been implicated as a causal factor in depression and anxiety, and is associated with neuroendocrine dysfunction and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3α,5α-THP; ALLO) has been shown to be reduced in depressed patients. ALLO is "stress responsive" and plays a major role in regulating(More)
This study was designed to investigated resistance (force) settings for 30s tests of maximal anaerobic power output on a modified Monark bicycle ergometer. Twelve active to highly trained adult males had multitrial determinations at various resistance settings to obtain the true force to elicit maximal power output in 30s (FMPO). True maximal power output(More)
The Coffin-Lowry syndrome is an established syndrome of mental retardation, a characteristic facies and skeletal anomalies. This paper describes 12 cases from eight families and compares their findings with those of previously reported patients. The differential diagnosis is considered. Physical findings and pedigree data strongly support X-linked(More)