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A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for trichloroethylene (TCE) in the male Long-Evans (LE) rat was needed to aid in evaluation of neurotoxicity data collected in this rodent stock. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model with the greatest possible specificity for the LE rat. The PBPK model consisted of 5 compartments: brain,(More)
Endocrine disruption from environmental contaminants has been linked to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. One concern about endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics is the potential for additive or synergistic (i.e., greater-than-additive) effects of mixtures. A short-term dosing model to examine the effects of environmental mixtures on thyroid homeostasis has(More)
Strategies are needed for assessing the risks of exposures to airborne toxicants that vary over concentrations and durations. The goal of this project was to describe the relationship between the concentration and duration of exposure to inhaled trichloroethylene (TCE), a representative volatile organic chemical, tissue dose as predicted by a(More)
Although chemical disinfection of drinking water is a highly protective public health practice, the disinfection process is known to produce toxic contaminants. Epidemiological studies associate chlorinated drinking water with quantitatively increased risks of rectal, kidney, and bladder cancer. One study found a significant exposure-response association(More)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activity is induced after 24 h of fasting but no information is available for shorter fasting periods. We investigate the induction of CYP 2E1, 2B1/2 and 1A1 in young adult male F344 rats after 8, 16 and 24 h of fasting compared to control. Liver microsomes were analyzed for the following enzyme activities: p-nitrophenol(More)
The Fischer 344 (F344) rat and the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat are used commonly to evaluate potential adverse health effects resulting from environmental exposure to chemicals. They are also the most common rat strain/stock used in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Accurate characterization of model input parameters will improve the(More)
Risk assessments often must consider exposures that vary over time or for which the exposure duration of concern differs from the available data, and a variety of extrapolation procedures have been devised accordingly. The present experiments explore the relationship(s) between exposure concentration (C) and time (t) to investigate procedures for assessing(More)
Response surface methodology, often supported by factorial designs, is the classical experimental approach that is widely accepted for detecting and characterizing interactions among chemicals in a mixture. In an effort to reduce the experimental effort as the number of compounds under study is increased, ray designs have been proposed to study combinations(More)
To assess whether potential toxic interactions occur between ethanol and allyl alcohol or carbon tetrachloride following subacute, concurrent chemical exposure, male Fischer 344 rats, approximately 70 d of age, were given ethanol at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 ml/kg in corn oil daily by gavage for 14 d (ETOH group), or the same levels of ethanol with 21 mg(More)
Strain A/J mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 6 mo to carbon disulfide, 1,2-dibromoethane, ethylene oxide, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, or vinyl chloride. Significant increases in pulmonary adenoma formation were observed following exposure to 300 ppm carbon disulfide; 20 and 50 ppm 1,2-dibromoethane; 70 and 200 ppm ethylene oxide; 10(More)