Jane Ellen Simmons

Learn More
Endocrine disruption from environmental contaminants has been linked to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. One concern about endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics is the potential for additive or synergistic (i.e., greater-than-additive) effects of mixtures. A short-term dosing model to examine the effects of environmental mixtures on thyroid homeostasis has(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for trichloroethylene (TCE) in the male Long-Evans (LE) rat was needed to aid in evaluation of neurotoxicity data collected in this rodent stock. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model with the greatest possible specificity for the LE rat. The PBPK model consisted of 5 compartments: brain,(More)
The Fischer 344 (F344) rat and the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat are used commonly to evaluate potential adverse health effects resulting from environmental exposure to chemicals. They are also the most common rat strain/stock used in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Accurate characterization of model input parameters will improve the(More)
Strain A/J mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 6 mo to carbon disulfide, 1,2-dibromoethane, ethylene oxide, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, or vinyl chloride. Significant increases in pulmonary adenoma formation were observed following exposure to 300 ppm carbon disulfide; 20 and 50 ppm 1,2-dibromoethane; 70 and 200 ppm ethylene oxide; 10(More)
Strategies are needed for assessing the risks of exposures to airborne toxicants that vary over concentrations and durations. The goal of this project was to describe the relationship between the concentration and duration of exposure to inhaled trichloroethylene (TCE), a representative volatile organic chemical, tissue dose as predicted by a(More)
The haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are formed during the disinfection of drinking water, wastewaters and recreational pool waters. Currently, five HAAs [bromoacetic acid (BAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), chloroacetic acid (CAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA); designated as HAA5] are regulated(More)
Non-additive toxicity has been demonstrated in laboratory animals for a large number of temporally separated or concurrent multiple chemical exposures. These exposures are typically at concentrations higher than those found in the environment, leading to the question of the applicability of the results to the human situation. Physiologically based(More)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activity is induced after 24 h of fasting but no information is available for shorter fasting periods. We investigate the induction of CYP 2E1, 2B1/2 and 1A1 in young adult male F344 rats after 8, 16 and 24 h of fasting compared to control. Liver microsomes were analyzed for the following enzyme activities: p-nitrophenol(More)
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models developed from gas uptake experiments have been used to estimate metabolic parameters for volatile organic compounds. Due to the potential application of PBPK models to estimate metabolic bioactivation constants in humans, it is important to understand the complex nature of these models and the resulting(More)
Robust statistical methods are important to the evaluation of toxicological interactions (i.e., departures from additivity) among chemicals in a mixture. However, different concepts of joint toxic action as applied to the statistical analysis of chemical mixture toxicology data or as used in environmental risk assessment often appear to conflict with one(More)