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PURPOSE To examine the role of innate immunity in a novel viral infection-induced seizure model. METHODS C57BL/6 mice, mouse strains deficient in interleukin (IL)-1RI, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-RI, or myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), or transgenic mice (OT-I) were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus(More)
Controversy exists over the role of autoantibodies to central nervous system antigens in autism and Tourette Syndrome. We investigated plasma autoantibody titers to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in children with classic onset (33) and regressive onset (26) autism, controls (25, healthy age- and gender-matched) and individuals with Tourette Syndrome(More)
Axonal pathology has been highlighted as a cause of neurological disability in multiple sclerosis. The Daniels (DA) strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infects the gray matter of the central nervous system of mice during the acute phase and persistently infects the white matter of the spinal cord during the chronic phase, leading to(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and both autoimmune, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and viral, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection, animal models of MS. Following TMEV infection, certain T cell hybridomas, generated(More)
PURPOSE We demonstrate the establishment and characterization of a novel virus infection-induced seizure model in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) or mock infected. Mice were followed for seizures, weight change, body temperature, motor function (righting reflex, rotorod) and(More)
Cells that can participate in an innate immune response within the central nervous system (CNS) include infiltrating cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs], macrophages, and natural killer [NK] cells) and resident cells (microglia and sometimes astrocytes). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by all of these cells and has been(More)
Clinicopathological paradox has hampered significantly the effective assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic intervention for multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging biomarkers of tissue injury could guide more effective treatment by accurately reflecting the underlying subclinical pathologies. Diffusion tensor imaging-derived directional diffusivity and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review will explore two new aspects of the involvement of viruses in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. The first aspect is the complex interactions between viruses. The second aspect is the proposal of a mechanism by which autoreactive T cells are able to escape thymic selection and potentially recognize self and a pathogen. RECENT(More)
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha(More)
Autoantibodies to central nervous system antigens, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a role in autism. We measured autoantibody titers to MBP in children with autism, both classic onset and regressive onset forms, controls (healthy age- and gender-matched) and individuals with Tourette syndrome via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found a(More)