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Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) can be sensitized to odorants by repeated exposure, suggesting that an animal's responsiveness to olfactory cues can be enhanced at the initial stage of detection. However, because OSNs undergo a regular cycle of apoptosis and replacement by ostensibly naive, precursor-derived neurons, the advantage of sensitization would be(More)
In our previous study we showed that insulin-like growth factor-I induces a cAMP-response element (CRE) site-containing Bcl-2 promoter through a novel signaling pathway involving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6/p38beta mitogen-activated protein kinase/MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-3/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) (Pugazhenthi,(More)
Obesity is the result of numerous, interacting behavioral, physiological, and biochemical factors. One increasingly important factor is the generation of additional fat cells, or adipocytes, in response to excess feeding and/or large increases in body fat composition. The generation of new adipocytes is controlled by several "adipocyte-specific"(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to prevent apoptosis induced by diverse stimuli. The present study examined the effect of IGF-I on the promoter activity of bcl-2, a gene with antiapoptotic function. A luciferase reporter driven by the promoter region of bcl-2 from -1640 to -1287 base pairs upstream of the translation start site containing a(More)
IGF-I is known to support growth and to prevent apoptosis in neuronal cells. Activation of the nuclear transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has emerged as a central determinant in neuronal functions. In the present investigation, we examined the IGF-I-mediated phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB in rat(More)
Generation of oxidative stress/reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the causes of neuronal apoptosis. We have examined the effects of ROS at the transcriptional level in an immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line (H19-7) and in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Treatment of H19-7 cells with hydrogen peroxide (150 micro m) resulted in a 40% decrease in(More)
We have been investigating the effects of preventing oxidative stress on pathogenesis and complications of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model. Our studies have shown that damage caused by oxidative stress is higher in islets and vascular tissue of NOD mice than in nonautoimmune controls or a diabetes-resistant NOD mouse. In addition, phagocytic function(More)
SP600125, an anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), has been used to characterize the role of JNK in apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have demonstrated an additional novel anti-apoptotic action of this inhibitor in MIN6 cells, a mouse beta cell line. SP600125 induced CREB-dependent promoter activation by 2.8-fold at 20 microM, the(More)
We hypothesized that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) could function as a molecular determinant of smooth muscle cell fate. In arterial sections from the systemic and pulmonary circulation, CREB content was high in proliferation-resistant medial subpopulations of smooth muscle cells and low in proliferation-prone regions. In vessels from(More)
In this study, we examined the influence of high levels of cytosolic calcium on phosphorylation status and function of GLUT-4 in isolated rat adipocytes. Intracellular calcium was elevated by exposing adipocytes to either extracellular ATP (1.6 mM) or thapsigargin (100 nM). Both agents increased cytosolic calcium 2-3 fold. While basal glucose uptake was(More)