Jane Cunningham

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Most of the world's tuberculosis cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where sputum microscopy with a conventional light microscope is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. A major shortcoming of conventional microscopy is its relatively low sensitivity compared with culture, especially in patients co-infected with HIV.(More)
In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. The method is fast, inexpensive, and specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high incidence areas. The main limitations of direct microscopy are its relatively low sensitivity, especially in individuals(More)
Accurate diagnosis is essential for prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria. While rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer great potential to improve malaria diagnosis, the sensitivity of RDTs has been reported to be highly variable. One possible factor contributing to variable test performance is the diversity of parasite antigens. This is of particular(More)
Although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection pandemic has had a catastrophic impact on tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, most of the fundamental concepts reflected in the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy still hold true in the HIV era. What has changed, and dramatically, is the(More)
This product is part of the RAND Health working paper series. RAND working papers are intended to share researchers' latest findings and to solicit informal peer review. They have been approved for circulation by RAND Health but have not been formally edited or peer reviewed. Unless otherwise indicated, working papers can be quoted and cited without(More)
Conventional diagnostic tests for tuberculosis have several limitations and are often unhelpful in establishing the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Although commercial serological antibody based tests are available, their usefulness in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is unknown. A systematic review was conducted to assess the accuracy(More)
BACKGROUND Sub-microscopic (SM) Plasmodium infections represent transmission reservoirs that could jeopardise malaria elimination goals. A better understanding of the epidemiology of these infections and factors contributing to their occurrence will inform effective elimination strategies. While the epidemiology of SM P. falciparum infections has been(More)
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a critical role in malaria case management, surveillance and case investigations. Test performance is largely determined by design and quality characteristics, such as detection sensitivity, specificity, and thermal stability. However, parasite characteristics such as variable or absent expression of antigens(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to commonly used antituberculosis drugs is emerging worldwide. Conventional drug-susceptibility testing (DST) methods are slow and demanding. Alternative, rapid DST methods would permit the early detection of drug resistance and, in turn, arrest tuberculosis transmission. METHODS A cost-effectiveness analysis of 5 DST methods was(More)