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African trypanosomes cause sleeping sickness in humans, a disease that is typically fatal without chemotherapy. Unfortunately, drug resistance is common and melarsoprol-resistant trypanosomes often display cross-resistance to pentamidine. Although melarsoprol/pentamidine cross-resistance (MPXR) has been an area of intense interest for several decades, our(More)
It has long been established that the Trypanosoma brucei TbAT1/P2 aminopurine transporter is involved in the uptake of diamidine and arsenical drugs including pentamidine, diminazene aceturate and melarsoprol. Accordingly, it was proposed that the closest Trypanosoma congolense paralogue, TcoAT1, might perform the same function in this parasite, and an(More)
OBJECTIVES Trypanosoma brucei drug transporters include the TbAT1/P2 aminopurine transporter and the high-affinity pentamidine transporter (HAPT1), but the genetic identity of HAPT1 is unknown. We recently reported that loss of T. brucei aquaglyceroporin 2 (TbAQP2) caused melarsoprol/pentamidine cross-resistance (MPXR) in these parasites and the current(More)
Oligopeptidase B is a clan SC, family S9 serine peptidase found in gram positive bacteria, plants and trypanosomatids. Evidence suggests it is a virulence factor and thus therapeutic target in both Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei, but little is known about its function in Leishmania. In this study L. major OPB-deficient mutants (Δopb) were created. These(More)
Aquaglyceroporin-2 is a known determinant of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in Trypanosoma brucei brucei laboratory strains. Recently, chimerization at the AQP2-AQP3 tandem locus was described from melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistant Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from sleeping sickness patients in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.(More)
BACKGROUND African trypanosomes are capable of both pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage of preformed pyrimidines from the host, but it is unknown whether either process is essential to the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Pyrimidine requirements for growth were investigated using strictly pyrimidine-free media, with or without single added(More)
African trypanosomiasis is a disease of humans and livestock in many areas south of the Sahara. Resistance to the few existing drugs is a major impediment to the control of these diseases, and we investigated how resistance to the main veterinary drug diminazene aceturate correlates with changes in drug transport in resistant strains. The strain tbat1(-/-),(More)
Drug resistance in pathogenic protozoa is very often caused by changes to the 'transportome' of the parasites. In Trypanosoma brucei, several transporters have been implicated in uptake of the main classes of drugs, diamidines and melaminophenyl arsenicals. The resistance mechanism had been thought to be due to loss of a transporter known to carry both(More)
The Trypanosoma brucei aminopurine transporter P2/TbAT1 has long been implicated in the transport of, and resistance to, the diamidine and melaminophenyl arsenical classes of drugs that form the backbone of the pharmacopoeia against African trypanosomiasis. Genetic alterations including deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been observed(More)
One of the most promising new targets for trypanocidal drugs to emerge in recent years is the cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity encoded by TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2. These genes were genetically confirmed as essential, and a high-affinity inhibitor, CpdA, displays potent antitrypanosomal activity. To identify effectors of the elevated cAMP(More)