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BACKGROUND Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. METHODS In this international,(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal cardiac repolarization, indicated by a prolongation of the QT interval, increases the risk for torsades de pointes, a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia. Many perioperatively administered drugs and conditions prolong the QT interval. Despite several reports of perioperative torsades de pointes, systematic evidence regarding(More)
BACKGROUND The blood-brain barrier is richly populated by active influx and efflux transporters influencing brain drug concentrations. Morphine, a drug with delayed clinical onset, is a substrate for the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in vitro and in animals. This investigation tested whether morphine is a transporter substrate in humans. METHODS(More)
A previously described method for mannitol in urine has been modified and improved. End product inhibition by fructose in the mannitol dehydrogenase method for mannitol has been minimized; the assay is linear over a sample mannitol concentration range of 0-12 mmol/L; no significant interference from other sugars or sugar alcohols could be demonstrated. The(More)
BACKGROUND Nitrous oxide inactivates vitamin B(12), inhibits methionine synthase, and consequently increases plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide can lead to neuropathy, spinal cord degeneration, and even death in children. We tested the hypothesis that nitrous oxide anesthesia causes a significant increase in plasma tHcy in(More)
BACKGROUND Methadone is frequently administered to adults experiencing anesthesia and receiving pain treatment. Methadone pharmacokinetics in adults are well characterized, including the perioperative period. Methadone is also used in children. There is, however, no information on methadone pharmacokinetics in children of any age. The purpose of this(More)
BACKGROUND Interindividual variability in methadone disposition remains unexplained, and methadone accidental overdose in pain therapy is a significant public health problem. Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the principle determinant of clinical methadone elimination. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic, with several variant alleles. CYP2B6.6, the protein(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged administration of nitrous oxide causes an increase in plasma homocysteine in children via vitamin B12 inactivation. However, it is unclear whether nitrous oxide doses used in clinical practice cause adverse hematological effects in pediatric patients. METHODS This retrospective study included 54 pediatric patients undergoing elective(More)
The electrical impedance of samples of stainless-steel monopolar needle electrodes and concentric electrodes from 3 manufacturers were measured in 154mM saline solution using sine-wave excitation at 4 frequencies from 10Hz to 10kHz. Current densities of less than 2.5x10(-5) amp/cm2 were used. Measurements on both needle and fine-wire electrodes were also(More)
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