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Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate life expectancy for people with HIV undergoing treatment compared with life expectancy in the general population and to assess the impact on life expectancy of late treatment, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) at start of antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Outpatient HIV clinics throughout the United Kingdom.(More)
BACKGROUND Successful antiretroviral treatment is dependent on sustaining high rates of adherence. In the southern African context, only a handful of studies (both quantitative and qualitative) have looked at the determinants including a health behaviour theory of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The aim of this study is to assess factors including the(More)
In this study OTA addressed the practicality of open shelf-life dating of food to disclose food freshness to the consumer. The Office of Technology Assessment formed a panel of consumer representatives , food retailers, processors, wholesalers, scientific experts, and State and Federal Government officials. Staffs of the Congressional Research Service, the(More)
BACKGROUND While men who have sex with men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV infection in the UK, the number of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has risen steadily over the last five years. In the UK, three-quarters of heterosexual men and women diagnosed with HIV in 2004 probably acquired their infection in Africa. This changing(More)
INTRODUCTION Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. METHODS ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248(More)
BACKGROUND The uridine nucleotide analogue sofosbuvir is a selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase. We assessed the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir in combination with pegylated interferon alfa-2a (peginterferon) and ribavirin in non-cirrhotic treatment-naive, patients with HCV. METHODS For this open-label, randomised phase 2(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Data describing the incidence and survival of HIV-related central nervous system diseases (CNS-D) in recent years are sparse. METHODS Between 1996 and 2007, adult subjects without previous CNS-D within a large UK cohort were included (n=30,954). CNS-D were HIV encephalopathy (HIVe), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML),(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Patients aged more than 20 years who started ART during 2000-2010 (excluding IDU) in HIV clinics contributing to the UK CHIC Study were followed for mortality until 2012. We determined the latest(More)
BACKGROUND UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in healthcare settings if the local diagnosed HIV prevalence >2/1000 persons. This prospective study assessed the feasibility and acceptability, to patients and staff, of routinely offering HIV tests in four settings: Emergency Department, Acute Care Unit, Dermatology Outpatients and Primary Care.(More)