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OBJECTIVES We evaluated the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and production of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) by Salmonella enterica (serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A) in a teaching hospital in Nepal. The MDR strains of S. enterica were also tested for susceptibility to newer antibiotics. METHODS Blood cultures were obtained from 4105(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection has been associated with increased risk of CKD, but prior studies lack information on potential mechanisms. We evaluated the association between HCV or hepatitis B (HBV) co-infection and progressive CKD among(More)
The study of pharmacokinetics includes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs. The pharmacologic effect that a medication has on the body is known as pharmacodynamics. With antimicrobials, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters become especially important because of the association between host drug concentrations,(More)
OBJECTIVES Although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is increasingly used for respiratory distress, there is not much data supporting its use in children with status asthmaticus. The objective of this study was to determine safety, tolerability, and efficacy of early initiation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in addition to standard of(More)
In collaboration with a host country and international medical volunteers, a PICU and an NICU were conceptualized and realized in the developing country of Nepal. We present here the challenges that were encountered during and after the establishment of these units. The decision to develop an ICU with reasonable goals in a developing country has to be made(More)
Infections in diabetes mellitus are relatively more common and serious. Diabetic patients run the risk of acute metabolic decompensation during infections, and conversely patients with metabolic decompensation are at higher risk of certain invasive infections. Tight glycemic control is of paramount importance during acute infected or high stress state.(More)
Many patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-alpha) and ribavirin develop neutropenia requiring dose reduction or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) supplement. We analysed the database of patients who completed treatment for chronic HCV infection between 2003 and 2006.(More)
BACKGROUND Enteric fever is an endemic problem in Nepal and Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis but a normal baseline titer in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established. METHODS We measured average baseline antibody titers against "O" and "H" antigens of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and "H" antigens of(More)
The usual manifestation of histoplasmosis is in the form of respiratory illness. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with chronic diarrhea and did not respond to the conventional treatment, including that for Clostridium difficile. He was found to have isolated colonic histoplasmosis infection, which was treated with itraconazole. There(More)
BACKGROUND The global emergence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing bacterial isolates causing lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) has resulted in fewer therapeutic options in treatment modalities. However, to our knowledge no studies regarding MBLs had been done so far in Nepal. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the current level of(More)