Learn More
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and production of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) by Salmonella enterica (serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A) in a teaching hospital in Nepal. The MDR strains of S. enterica were also tested for susceptibility to newer antibiotics. METHODS Blood cultures were obtained from 4105(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection has been associated with increased risk of CKD, but prior studies lack information on potential mechanisms. We evaluated the association between HCV or hepatitis B (HBV) co-infection and progressive CKD among(More)
BACKGROUND Enteric fever is an endemic problem in Nepal and Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis but a normal baseline titer in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established. METHODS We measured average baseline antibody titers against "O" and "H" antigens of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and "H" antigens of(More)
BACKGROUND The global emergence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing bacterial isolates causing lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) has resulted in fewer therapeutic options in treatment modalities. However, to our knowledge no studies regarding MBLs had been done so far in Nepal. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the current level of(More)
The study of pharmacokinetics includes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs. The pharmacologic effect that a medication has on the body is known as pharmacodynamics. With antimicrobials, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters become especially important because of the association between host drug concentrations,(More)
Enterococci are uncommon causes of CNS infection. We describe a case of ventriculitis and Ommaya reservoir infection due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium successfully treated with the combination of i.v. quinupristin/dalfopristin and i.v. linezolid. The patient deteriorated after receiving three dosages of intraventricular(More)
OBJECTIVES Although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is increasingly used for respiratory distress, there is not much data supporting its use in children with status asthmaticus. The objective of this study was to determine safety, tolerability, and efficacy of early initiation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in addition to standard of(More)
Biologic response modifiers (BRMs) interact with the host immune system and modify the immune response. BRMs can be therapeutically used to restore, augment, or dampen the host immune response. Although they have been used for decades, their clinical applications have been expanded in the past decade for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases including(More)
In collaboration with a host country and international medical volunteers, a PICU and an NICU were conceptualized and realized in the developing country of Nepal. We present here the challenges that were encountered during and after the establishment of these units. The decision to develop an ICU with reasonable goals in a developing country has to be made(More)