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BACKGROUND Resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs) in the liver can undergo both pro- or anti-inflammatory activation pathway and exert either beneficiary or detrimental effects on liver metabolism. Until now, their role in the metabolically dysfunctional state of steatosis remains enigmatic. Aim of our study was to characterize the role of KCs in(More)
In addition to a number of deleterious effects on cellular integrity and functions, diabetic metabolic milieu has been implicated in a rapidly growing number of alterations in signal transduction. In this review we focus on Akt kinase physiology, its alterations in diabetes mellitus (DM), and on the emerging role of this signaling system in the(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS In addition to their lipid-lowering effects, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) induce a variety of pleiotropic actions that have been recently studied in the area of cardiovascular and renal protection. In the present studies we sought to determine whether statins retain beneficial effects in the experimental model of NO deficiency(More)
Insulin resistance (IR) and consequent hyperinsulinemia are hallmarks of Type 2 diabetes (DM2). Akt kinase (Akt) is an important molecule in insulin signaling, implicated in regulation of glucose uptake, cell growth, cell survival, protein synthesis, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Impaired Akt activation in insulin-sensitive tissues(More)
We present data supporting the hypothesis that the lysosomal-autophagy pathway is involved in the degradation of intracellular triacylglycerols in the liver. In primary hepatocytes cultivated in the absence of exogenous fatty acids (FFA), both inhibition of autophagy flux (asparagine) or lysosomal activity (chloroquine) decreased secretion of VLDL (very low(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, are involved in production of prostanoids in the kidney. Increases in renal COX-2 expression have been implicated in the pathophysiology of progressive renal injury, including type 1 diabetes. Thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) has been suggested as the key mediator of these effects resulting in(More)
Genes encoding ferritins were isolated and cloned from cDNA libraries of hard tick Ixodes ricinus and soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Both tick ferritins are composed of 172 amino-acid residues and their calculated mass is 19,667.2 Da and 19,974.5 Da for I. ricinus and O. moubata, respectively. The sequences of both proteins are closely related to each(More)
BACKGROUND Our study focused on the ability of epicardial adipocytes to produce bioactive substances and compare the extent of this production with the production of adipokines in visceral adipocytes, which are well known endocrine cells capable of contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The gene expression of human(More)
Akt kinase regulates numerous cell functions including glucose metabolism, cell growth, survival, protein synthesis, and control of local hemodynamics. mTOR is one of down-stream effectors of Akt involved in the initiation of protein translation. However, renal Akt signaling in Type 1 diabetes (DM) in vivo, in particular under the conditions reflecting(More)
We tested the hypothesis that TAG accumulation in the liver induced by short-term high-fat diet (HFD) in rats leads to the dysregulation of endogenous TAG degradation by lysosomal lipase (LIPA) via lysosomal pathway and is causally linked with the onset of hepatic insulin resistance. We found that LIPA could be translocated between qualitatively different(More)