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In vivo optogenetic strategies have redefined our ability to assay how neural circuits govern behavior. Although acutely implanted optical fibers have previously been used in such studies, long-term control over neuronal activity has been largely unachievable. Here we describe a method to construct implantable optical fibers to readily manipulate neural(More)
When male investment in mating varies with quality, reliable sexual signals may evolve. In many songbirds, testosterone mediates mating investment, suggesting that signals should be linked to testosterone production. However, because testosterone may change rapidly during behaviour such as territorial aggression and courtship, efforts to establish such a(More)
The activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons promotes behavioral responses to rewards and environmental stimuli that predict them. VTA GABA inputs synapse directly onto DA neurons and may regulate DA neuronal activity to alter reward-related behaviors; however, the functional consequences of selective activation of VTA GABA neurons(More)
Solar wind plasma observations made by the Ulysses spacecraft through -80.2 degrees solar latitude and continuing equatorward to -40.1 degrees are summarized. Recurrent high-speed streams and corotating interaction regions dominated at middle latitudes. The speed of the solar wind was typically 700 to 800 kilometers per second poleward of -35 degrees .(More)
Received —; accepted –—-_— —-–—–.. —. 2 Abstract. Wcprescnt astuclyof 153 fast shock waves and their relation toother large-scale features in the solar wind: corotating interaction regions (CIRs), interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMES) and the magnelic sector structure, observed by Ulysses from October 1990 to tl]e south solar pc)lar(More)
Halo electron velocity distributions have been surveyed during the first full Ulysses southern polar pass from January 1994 through April 1995. The data examined range from approximately 50 • S heliolatitude to the maximum pole-ward extent of the Ulysses orbit, approximately 80 • S, and then back through the solar equator to 35 • N heliolatitude. During(More)
Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B r , of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma β is 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional)(More)
Ulysses plasma data at high heliographic latitudes were studied to develop constraints on the structure of the corona at the base of the high-speed solar wind. Salient features of the flow poleward of ±60 • revealed: 1) low variances of all bulk flow parameters, 2) parameter values that agree with those measured during high-speed conditions in the ecliptic(More)
Studies in non-neural cells have suggested that a fall in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsiM) is one of the earliest events in apoptosis. It is not known whether neural apoptosis caused by nerve growth factor (NGF) and serum withdrawal involves a decrease in DeltaPsiM. We used epifluorescence and laser confocal microscopy with the mitochondrial(More)
From September 1991 to October 1992, the cosmic dust detector on the Ulysses spacecraft recorded 11 short bursts, or streams, of dust. These dust grains emanated from the jovian system, and their trajectories were strongly affected by solar wind magnetic field forces. Analyses of the on-board measurements of these fields, and of stream approach directions,(More)